НАУЧНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА - РЕФЕРАТЫ - Alexander Murashko
One of the most prominent Ukrainian painters of the late XIX - early XX century Alexander Murashko born August 26, 1875 in Kiev, the family of Alexander Ivanovich iconographer ants. His uncle, Nicholas Murashko was famous culture, the founder of the Kyiv Drawing School. One of the most prominent Ukrainian painters of the late XIX - early XX century Alexander Murashko born August 26, 1875 in Kiev, the family of Alexander Ivanovich iconographer ants. His uncle, Nicholas Murashko was famous culture, the founder of the Kyiv Drawing School.
A large group of Ukrainian artists came from Kyiv Mykola Murashka drawing school (1844-1909), who was a famous art critic, author of popular books in its time "Memories of the old teacher, an outstanding educator, master of lithography, first in the Ukrainian graphic applied to illustrate children's books and created illustrations for Andersen fairy tales. The school Murashka Nicholas, who from 1875 until 1901 was the center of artistic life in Kyiv, winning art education Kryzhytskyy, Pymonenkao, Dyadchenko, Kostenko, Yizhakevych, Cvitlytskyy, Krasytsky, Serov, Malevich. School attended and provided her assistance Repin, Ge, Vrubel, Polish painter Jan Stanislavsky. Under the influence of an increasingly broader revitalization of scientific societies, including the Historical Society of Nestor the Chronicler, Scientific Society. Taras Shevchenko Kyiv cultural institutions and provincial Commons, South West Branch of the Russian Geographic Society, which was attended by A., Lysenko, Chubynsky, Wolf, in people growing interest in its historical past, to folk art. In the visual arts of the time especially the intensive household and historical genres that allow you to display important events and developments current and past. A lot of artists turned to the historical genre, which implemented its national and patriotic feelings.
The childhood of the artist was in town Borzna in Chernihiv. Later the family moved to Kyiv, where his father opened the icon-painting workshops. Working in his father's painting studio and Mastering in iconographer Naumenko, Alexander Murashko graduated from the Kiev Theological College. In the late 80's Professor Adrian Alexander Prakhov attracted to work on finishing the interior of the Vladimir Cathedral in Kiev. Getting Prahova and Russian artists Vasnetsov, Nesterov, Wrubel, Kotarbinskym who worked on the paintings of the cathedral, encouraged the young man seriously study painting. Met resistance father who wanted his son got religious education or a merchant, Alexander leaves home for a long time is a loader on the Dnieper, is among vagrants, suffers hardship, poverty, however, leaves no ploy, colorful paints the common types of Kiev.1900 O. Murashko receives for the painting "Burial Kosh" title with the right artist mesionerskoyi travel abroad. Since 1901 A. Murashko is in Germany, Italy, where he performs a number of works which refers to the Academy as a report by mesionerske travel. In February 1902 the Academy extends the mission and offering Murashko internship in Paris, where he creates a series of brilliant paintings, including "Portrait of a girl in a red hat", inspired by then popular in Europe, impressionistic manner. 1904 Murashko returns to Petersburg, participates in a "New Society of Artists.Mesionerske travel abroad Murashko allowed to plunge into a whirlwind of rapid artistic life of the major European art centers, Paris and Munich, where he stays until 1907. Various, often radically opposed in their artistic direction of flow directions and not left behind creative research master in the field of color and form. But most were his soul to reach the French Impressionists, through which his palette becomes clearer, dekoratyvnishoyu, emotionally nasnazhenishoyu, juicy, and the disclosure of the nature images in the portraits - ekspresyvnishym. It was in Paris Murashko created one of the most effective of these works, "Girl in red hat" (1902-1903), which is one of the best achievements of the Ukrainian portrait of the twentieth century. Abroad Murashko also created a series of paintings, which described the life of Paris and Parisians ("Parisian", "Cafй", "Parisian cafe," At the Cafe "), successfully combined the colorful achievements of impressionism with a delicate psychological, compositional expression. In 1911 became a member of Munich Murashko secessionism, the annual exhibition. 1913 created a glorious picture of the "Peasant Family". In 1910-ies Murashko teacher at the Kiev Art College as a professor, in 1913, together with A. Krueger-Prahova offers private studio that lasted until 1917. After the February Revolution, the artist took an active part in the Ukrainian Academy of Arts. 1919 O. Murashko killed by bandits. In the second half of the XIX Century in Ukraine intensified nationalist movement that called for a powerful creative life force of the people. On the influence of Repin Murashka already shows that under Ryepinovyh Zaporozhets he played competitive diploma work "Burial Kosh. In the workshop Repin Alexander Murashko went with many Ukrainian artists, including Mr. Martinovich, O. Slastion, S. Vasilkovsky. The basis of the great monumental paintings charged story of life Zaporizhzhya Sich. An artist with great skill described feeling Zaporozhian-Cossacks who solemnly accompanied the last journey of his chieftain. As Repin in Zaporozhets, Murashko among the central characters depicted famous Cossack Ivan Sirko. However, creativity-portrait by Repin, who overcame academic convention, was a bold innovator in presenting the inner world portretovanyh, focusing on the best psychological models of European paintings, determined and creative searches Alexander ants. For his first significant work as a portrait - "Portrait of a Girl" - shows a significant impact ryepinskoyi energetic style of writing, poetry in presenting the image. At the same time on the creative manner Murashka-portrait had a noticeable impact creativity Serov, where the inherent refinement of artistic taste, artistic reproduction of the deepest nuances of human experiences by means of fine art. An important feature Murashka as an artist and citizen, was his active participation in the development of Ukrainian school of art. His experience over from the Repin and Nikolai Murashka, he successfully used as a teacher of the Kyiv Drawing School and later at the Kiev Art School and their own studio, open it with the artist A. Krueger-Prahova in Kiev in 1913. In his system of teaching Murashko refused mechanical copying of plaster and dead nature. He, like the French impressionists, taught young artists work only on wildlife are constantly advised to observe and record life in all its forms, the students developed a keen sense of color, he prepared them to be this diligent students of nature. His concept evolved in the Wake of the overall development of Ukrainian culture that sought after centuries of spiritual enslavement to revive old traditions, including the Ukrainian school of painting. Murashko was actively involved with his creativity and teaching at the National revival times of the Ukrainian State. Together with Boychuk, Narbut, Alexander Krichevsky creates the Ukrainian Academy of Arts. The best works Murashka - "Portrait of a girl in a red hat" and "Peasant Family" - Ukrainian painting presented to the best world achievements of the twentieth century. Murashko killed by bandits in the prime of his creative life. The circumstances of his death and still not addressed and remain mysterious, like the sudden and mysterious death in the same years of Ukrainian culture devotees Steshenka Ivan, Nikolai Leontovich, Alexandra Efimenko, Theodore Wolf, George Narbuta.