НАУЧНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА - РЕФЕРАТЫ - National features of cuisine and table manners
National features of cuisine and table manners
1. Chapter I. Various American cuisine
1.1 Hot dogs
1.4 Apple pie
1.5 Potato chips
1.7 Pop- Corn
2. Chapter II. Hospitality of Ukrainian cuisine
2.1 Overview of Ukrainian cuisine history
2.2 Cuisines of Ukraine
2.3 Preparation methods of Ukrainian cooking
2.4 Special equipment of Ukrainian cooking
2.5 Ukrainian food traditions and festivals
3. Chapter III. Table manners
Have you ever stopped to really think about what you and your family eat every day and why? Have you ever stopped to think what other people eat? In the movie Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, there are two scenes in which the two lead characters are offered meals from a different culture. One meal, meant to break the ice, consisted of insects. The second meal was a lavish banquet that featured such delicacies as roasted beetles, live snakes, eyeball soup, and chilled monkey brains for dessert. Some cultures eat such things as vipers and rattlesnakes, bush rats, dog meat, horsemeat, bats, animal heart, liver, eyes, and insects of all sorts.
The manner in which food is selected, prepared, presented, and eaten often differs by culture. Americans love beef, yet it is forbidden to Hindus, while the forbidden food in the Moslem and Jewish cultures is normally pork, eaten extensively by the Chinese and others. In large cosmopolitan cities, restaurants often carter to diverse diets and offer “national” dishes to meet varying cultural tastes. Feeding habits also differ, and the range goes from hands to chopsticks to full sets of cutlery. Even when cultures use a utensil such as fork, one can distinguish a European from an American by which hand holds the implement. Subcultures, too, can be analyzed from this perspective, such as the executive's dining room, the soldier's mess… or the ladies' tea room, and the vegetarian's restaurant.
Often the differences among cultures in the foods they eat are related to the differences in geography and local resources. People who live near water (seas, lakes, and rivers) tend to eat more fish and crustaceans. People who live in colder climates tend to eat heavier, fatty foods. However, with the development of a global economy, food boundaries and differences are beginning to dissipate: McDonalds is now on every continent except Antarctica, and tofu and yoghurt are served all over the world. [5., 324]
The aim of the course paper is to identify two absolutely different types of cuisines and to analyze the right behavior during the meal.
The subjects of the work are features of national cuisine and table manners.
The object of the course paper is the wide range of dishes, the comparison of Ukrainian and American cuisine and table manners.
The objectives of the course paper are as follows:
· to compare the Ukrainian and American cuisine;
· to study the wide range of dishes which were mentioned in the course paper;
· to review table manners;
· to analyze recipes of different dishes;
· to identify the origin of some meals.
While researching there were used the following methods of investigation: analysis of books, magazines, descriptive method and comparative analysis.
The structure of the course paper is caused by the consistency of research. The course paper consists of introduction, chapter I, chapter II, chapter III, conclusion, references and resume.
Chapter I. Various American cuisine
The popular view outside the U.S.A. that Americans survive on cheeseburgers, Cokes and French fries is as accurate as the American popular view that the British live on tea and fish'n'chips, the Germans only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and the French on red wine and garlic.
This view comes from the fact that much of what is advertised abroad as “American food” is a very pretty flat, tasteless imitation. American beef, for example, comes from specially grain-fed cattle, not from cows that are raised mainly for milk production. As a result, American beef is tenderer and tastes better than what is usually offered as an “American steak” in Europe. When sold abroad, the simple baked potato that comes hot and whole in foil often lacks the most important element, the famous Idaho potato. This has different texture and skin that comes from the climate and soil in Idaho.
Even sometimes as basic as barbecue sauces shows difference from many of the types found on supermarket shelves overseas. A fine barbecue sauce from the Southside of Chicago has its own fire and soul. The Texas has a competition each year for the hottest barbecue sauce (the recipes are kept secret).
America has two strong advantages when it comes to food. The first is that as the leading agriculture nation, she has always been well supplied with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables in great variety at relatively low prices. This is one reason why steak or beef roast is probably the most “typical” American food; it has always been more available. But good Southern-fried chicken also has champions, as do hickory-smoked or sugar-cured hams, turkey, fresh lobster, and other seafood such as crabs or clams.
In a country with widely different climates and many fruit and vegetable growing regions, such items as fresh grapefruit, oranges, lemons, melons, cherries, peaches, or broccoli, iceberg lettuce, avocados, and cranberries do not have to be imported. This is one reason why fruit dishes and salads are so common. Family vegetable gardens have been very popular, both as a hobby and as a way to save money, from the days when most Americans were farmers. They also help to keep fresh food on the table.
The second advantage America has enjoyed is that immigrants have brought with them, and continue to bring, the traditional foods of their countries and cultures. The variety of foods and styles is simply amazing. Whether Armenian, Basque, Catalonian, Creole, Danish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, traditional Jewish, Latvian, Mexican, Vietnamese or what have you, these traditions are now also at home in the U.S.A.
There seem to be four trends in America at present, which are connected with foods and dining. First, there has been a notable increase in the number of reasonably priced restaurants, which offer specialty foods. These include those that specialize in many varieties and types of pancakes, those that offer only fresh, baked breakfast foods, and the many that are buffets or salad bars. Secondly, growing numbers of Americans are more regularly going out to eat in restaurants. One reason is that they are not many American women do not feel that their lives are best spent in the kitchen. They would rather pay a professional chef and also enjoy a good meal. At the same time, there is an increase in fine cooking as a hobby for both men and women. For some two decades now, these have been popular television series on all types and styles of cooking, and the increasing popularity can easily be seen in the number of best-selling specialty cookbooks and the number of stores that specialize in often-exotic cooking devices and spices. [2., 52]
A third is that as a result of nationwide health campaigns, Americans in general are eating a much light diet. Cereals and grain foods, fruit and vegetables, fish and salads are emphasized instead of heavy and sweet foods. Finally, there is the international trend to “fast food” chains, which sell pizza, hamburgers, Mexican foods, chicken, salads and sandwiches, seafoods and various ice creams. While many Americans and many other people resent this trend and while, as many are expected, restaurants also dislike it, many young, middle-aged, and old people, both rich and poor, continue to buy and eat fast foods.
Tad Dorgan, a sports cartoonist, gave the frankfurter its nickname in 1906. Munching on a frank at a baseball game, he concluded that it resembled a dachshund's body and put that whimsy into a drawing, which he captioned “Hot dog”.
Sausages go all the way back to ancient Babylon, but the hot dog was brought to the U.S.A. shortly before the Civil War by a real Frankfurter - Charles Feltman, a native of Frankfurt, Germany, who opened a stand in New York and sold grilled sausages on warmed rolls - first for a dime apiece, later, a nickel.
The frank appealed to busy Americans, who - as an early 19th century comment put it - tend to live by the maxim of “gobble, gulp and go”. Nowadays Americans consume more than 12 billion frankfurters a year.
Modern hamburgers on a bun were first served at the St. Louis Fair in 1904, but Americans really began eating them in quantity in the 1920s, when the White Castle snack bar chain featured a small, square patty at a very low price. Chopped beef, tasty and easily prepared, quickly caught on as family fare, and today hamburger stands, drive-ins, and burger chains offer Americans their favorite hot sandwich at every turn.
The history of the hamburger dates back to medieval Europe. Early German sailors brought a Tartar dish of shredded raw beef seasoned with salt and onion juice from Russia to Germany. The lightly broiled German chopped-beef cake, with pickles and pumpernickel on the side, was introduced to America in the early 1800s by German immigrants in the Midwest. [4., 67]
It was early Dutch settlers and the Pennsylvania Germans who introduced the yeasty, deep-fried doughnut to America. To the Dutch it was a festive food, eaten for breakfast on Shrove Sunday.
Legend has it that doughnut got its hole in 1847 when Hanson Gregory, a lad later to become a sea captain, complained to his mother that her fried cakes were raw in the center and poked hole4s in the next batch before they were cooked.
During World War I, when the Salvation Army served them to the troops, doughnuts really took off as popular fare. Since then, coffee and doughnuts become a national institution. Stores sell them plain, sugared, frosted, honey-dipped, or jam-filled.
At its best, with a savory filling and crisp, light-brown crust, apple pie has long been favorite on American tables.
Apples and apple seems were among the precious supplies the early colonists brought to the New World. The first large apple orchards were planted near Boston by William Blaxton in the 1600s. When he moved to Rhode Island in 1635, he developed the tart Rhode Island Greening, still considered one of America's finest apple pies.
As the fruit became abundant, many settlers ate apple pie at every meal. Garnished with a chunk of cheese, it was a favorite colonial breakfast dish. By the 18th century apple pie became so popular that Yale College in New Haven served it every night at supper for more than 100 years.
America's love affair with apple pie has remained constant. Today's housewives, pressed for time, can shortcut the tradition by buying the pastry ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets. Many variations on the good old original are available, but the classical apple pie, irresistible when topped with a slice of rat-trap cheese or slathered with vanilla ice cream, is still America's favorite. [4., 68-69]
George Crumb, an American Indian who was the chef at Moon's Lake House in Saratoga Springs, New York, in the mid-19th century, was irked when a finicky dinner guest kept sending back his French fried potatoes, complaining they were too thick. In exasperation, Crumb shaved the potatoes into tissue-thin slice and deep-fried them in oil. He had a dishful of crisp “Saratoga chips” presented to the guest, who was delighted with the new treat.
Potato chips became the specialty of Moon's Lake House and, later, America's crunchiest between-meal snack.
America's best-known soft drink was first concocted by an Atlanta pharmacist in 1886. The syrup was cooked up by John S. Pemberton from extracts of coca leaves and the kola nut. He then organized the Pemberton Chemical Company, and Coca-Cola syrup mixed with plain water was sold in a local drug store for 5 cents a glass.
Sales were slow until in 1887 a prosperous Atlanta druggist, Asa G. Candler, bought the Coca-Cola formula - then as now a carefully guarded secret - and added carbonate water to the syrup instead of plain water.
Advertisement stressing the words “delicious” and “refreshing” and carry coupons for free Coca-Cola added to the increase in consumption. A system of independent local bottling companies was developed, and the flared bottle, familiar worldwide and said to resemble the hobble skirt, was designed in 1916.
In 1919 the company was sold out for $25 million to a group headed by Ernest Woodruff. Under his son, Robert W. Woodruff, Coca-Cola rapidly expanded its market. By the mid-1970s more than 150 million Cokes a day were sold in country all over the world.
Today Coca-Cola has to compete with many other soft drinks, but it is still one of the symbols of the United States.
It's impossible to imagine American take-away food or snacks without popcorn. Clear as a day, it is made from corn. But what about the first part of the word “pop”. Actually, when you put a kernel of corn on a fire, the water inside makes the corn explode. This makes a “pop” noise. That is why we call it popcorn. It's an interesting thing to know that not all corn pops. A seed of corn must contain 14% water in it. Other kinds of corn have less water and do not pop. The American Indians, who popped corn a long time ago, knew that special sort. They introduced corn to the first settlers. In 1620 when Pilgrims had a Thanksgiving dinner they invited the Indians, who brought popcorn with them. Since that time Americans continued to pop corn at home. But in 1945 a new machine was invented that changed the history of the product. The electric machine enabled to pop corn outside the home. And soon movies started selling popcorn to make more money. The famous American habit of eating popcorn at the movies is well- known. Many people like to put salt or melted butter in their popcorn, some prepare to have it without. Either way Americans love their popcorn. [4., 69]
There are a lot of places in Kiev and in Ukraine where you can taste American cuisine. But the best and the most popular is Restaurant “Friday's”.
Friday's is an international chain of American cuisine restaurants. To date, there are more than 700 Friday's restaurants located in 55 countries throughout the world.
Friday's is also famous for its collection of bric-a-brac, which can tell many an intriguing story. Friday's rare objects come from all over the world, and the restaurants act as custodians of their stories.
Friday's success formula is simplicity itself. The guest's wishes are commands for the staff; that's why restaurants make every visitor feel at home. Friday's personnel are young, energetic, friendly young men and women who have received their professional education at the company's training center. The restaurants maintain at all times a happy, friendly atmosphere beloved by guests.
But the main attraction here is genuine American cuisine. It was Friday's that invented the recipe for loaded potato skins, which has gone on to become not only the restaurant's hit, but also a signature American dish. All drinks at Friday's are mixed according to the most exacting recipes. The dishes startle with the size of servings. When reading the menu, Friday's visitors quite often face the problem of what to choose. The job is indeed far from an easy one. Judge for yourselves: Friday's sauced mushrooms, coated and fried till crisp and crunchy; Friday's quesadilla, a tortilla pancake with beef or chicken fillet; Fettuccine Alfredo, pasta served with Cajun sauce; and Jack Daniel's glazed ribs, are just a few of the most popular dishes. And there are also salads, sandwiches, Friday's signature hamburgers, juicy steaks, Cajun recipes and chef's specials. To say nothing of desserts and beverages! But truth be told, at Friday's you'll get help in making your choice: the waiter will be only too happy to explain what this or that dish is like. All you'll have to do is place your order.
At Friday's you'll always be comfortable, well fed, and happy! [14.]
Sam's Steak House
If you want to taste a real American steak, you have to go to the Sam's Steak House. The best selection of steaks is there. You may peak your own steak and watch them cooked to perfection by the frill chef.
Also there is an excellent choice of Californian and European dishes,
exquisitely cooked seafood and classical desserts: Cheese cake, hot Apple pie.
This restaurant, arguably serving the best selection of steaks in the Ukraine, is situated on the cross road at 37 Zhilyanskaya Str. Decorated in the "New colonial" style, the light maple wood interior with green highlights and red brick walls sets off the wooden American colonial period furniture. The shelves holding period china, cupboards wherein are displayed the restaurant's wines, matching green curtains and plethora of large comfortable cushions completes the homely atmosphere. Situated in the main dining hall is the impressive open grill flanked by the chilled meat display cabinets. While you eat your meal watch sports events or fashion shows on the TV's, or look for the numerous Kiev personalities such as Sports stars, DJ's and pop singers who always go where the action is and the steak action is most definitely right here in Sam's Steak House.
Veal, pork, lamb or salmon steaks of any size (250g - 500g) are cooked in a unique way by the professional master of grill. The meat that goes to cook the specialty of Sam's Steak House has to "mature" in carcasses for a long time - three to six weeks. The meat loses nearly 30% of weight, but its taste becomes really special. Sam's steaks are impressively large, both for ladies (300g - 350g) and gentlemen (450g - 500g). Especially popular with female customers is the soft lean veal Rump Steak. Sommeliers recommend having Sam's Pork Chop with Chablis Grand Cru, and Champion's Cut - (lamb steak) - with Gewurztraminer. [14.]
Chapter II. Hospitality of Ukrainian cuisine
Overview of Ukrainian Cuisine History
The history of the Ukrainian cuisine is long and tumultuous, and there were numerous outside elements that influenced it profoundly. Until the 17th and 18th century, the Ukrainian cuisine was mostly characterized by peasant and rural made dishes. Simple and economical soups, without much ornament, and consistent yet very easy to cook meals were the main parts of the Ukrainian diet. Things changed when the tsars began calling French and Italian chefs to cook for their banquets and celebrations. The luxury and festive style of the dishes prepared by foreign chefs soon began to influence the existing Ukrainian cuisine. Although most dishes were kept in their traditional form, modern variations of those dishes are present in most Ukrainian homes today. New spices and herbs were used to improve the flavor of the existing traditional Ukrainian dishes and today you shouldn't be surprised to find plants that are not characteristic to Ukraine used in traditional, home made dishes. As for finding American food- the large cities have specialist restaurants with Western cuisine for tourists, and these are beginning to filter down into the medium sized cities. Small towns and villages may not have any public food services at all, although grocery stores and street markets are common.
Ukrainian cooking uses black pepper, red pepper, salt, bay leaf, parsley and dill (usually in spring and summer), garlic and onion. Staples include potatoes, cabbage, fish, pork, beef and sausage. Ukrainian people eat many dishes made of potato. During the Soviet era, there were chronic shortages of food. However, as Ukraine is an agricultural country, today there is much meat in the market (beef, pork, chickens, turkey) as well as cheese, butter, bread and milk. However, for some items, notably cheese, prices are still very high. The core of the Ukrainian cuisine originates in the peasant dishes based on grains and staple vegetables like potatoes, cabbage, beets and mushrooms. Meat is an important ingredient in most Ukrainian dishes, and it is prepared in different ways, either as stewed, boiled, fried or smoked. Popular Ukrainian snacks include the varenyky and the most appreciated traditional dish is pig fat - called salo. The fact that Ukrainians preserve and age salo as one of their most prized national cuisine elements should give you an idea about the overall style of the Ukrainian cuisine - it is not a suitable one if your goal is to stay thin. Borscht originated in Ukraine and it is the national soup - although bortsch is now an international dish that is also very popular in surrounding regions, such as parts of Russia and Romania. Ukrainian restaurants are not the number one place to go when you are looking for a traditional Ukrainian meal - the best way to experience the Ukrainian cuisine is at a home made meal. [6., 110]
Cuisines of Ukraine
There are no distinguishable cuisine types in Ukraine, but a variety of different influences can be noticed by a careful eye. The neighboring countries have influenced the Ukrainian cuisine, much as the Ukrainian cuisine influences the regional and national cuisines of the neighbors. The Lviv or Luts'k regions of Ukraine, for example, display a cuisine that resembles the Polish cuisine, with pork meat being the main ingredient for most dishes. The north-eastern provinces, such as Sumy, Kharkiv or Luhans'k show influences from the Russian cuisine, while the southern part of Ukraine has several recipes that are specific to Moldova and Romania. Agriculture has always been used extensively in Ukraine and wheat, rye, oats and millet were the main ingredients for any meal for centuries. Bread was and still is one of the food elements that are never absent from a Ukrainian meal. Bread is used with soup and the main course, although sometimes it may be left aside if the dish contains potatoes or pasta. Bakery was also present since immemorial times and all grain based food products used in the past are still present today, in one form or another. Meat is yet another essential element in the Ukrainian cuisine. Hunting was extremely popular in Ukraine and it ensured a large proportion of the meat that Ukrainians consumed. Wild animal meat was gradually replaced by farmed animal meat. Fish is also popular with a large variety of dishes, and there are hundreds of fish species that are used in delicious dishes.
Preparation methods of Ukrainian cooking
The simple and rustic cooking style that characterizes a large percentage of the Ukrainian cuisine is also complemented by modern dishes that are extravagant and unique, most of them developed by international Ukrainian chefs. The Ukrainian cuisine uses elements from various cooking traditions borrowed from their neighbors and developed from their own traditional dishes. While there are no specific or unique preparation methods for Ukrainian cooking, we should point out that attention to detail is important in the Ukrainian cuisine. Each traditional dish has a special cooking method, which is more or less general in all of the country's regions. Meat is one of the main elements of most Ukrainian dishes and cured and smoked hams, poultry, pork and beef fillets, and bacons are often parts of delicious dishes. Smoked fish as well as other fish meat types are widely appreciated, and cooking styles may differ from highly specialized restaurant cooking to simple, rustic cooking methods. Although the traditional cooking styles for most Ukrainian dishes go back to hundreds, if not thousands of years ago, today most cooking is quite similar to any western European cuisine. [6., 112]
Special equipment of Ukrainian cooking
Here are a few of the equipment items you might find in a Ukrainian kitchen: cake pans, can openers, colanders, egg rings, poachers and holders, food dishers and portioners, food pans and food containers to other kitchen utensils, such as food scales, food scoops and fryer baskets and accessories. The Ukrainian cuisine needs a diverse cooking equipment set in order to produce the most sophisticated Ukrainian dishes, but the traditional recipes can be cooked with only a fire source and a few pots and pans. Essential utensils like serving spoons, spatulas, forks, turners, scrapers and tongs should also be part of your cooking “toolbox”, especially if you are determined to make the most out of any meal you prepare and serve. Here are a few other items that will come handy while cooking Ukrainian food: juicers, kitchen knives, kitchen slicers, kitchen thermometers, measuring cups and measuring spoons, miscellaneous utensils, mixing bowls and skimmers and strainers. All of the enumerated items can and will be useful at some point, but they are more likely to be specific to restaurants, rather than traditional Ukrainian homes.
Ukrainian food traditions and festivals
Although most Ukrainian festivals involve the culinary arts to a certain extent, Christmas is the most predominant holiday where food plays an important role in the festivity. Ukrainian Christmas customs are based not only on Christian traditions, but to a great degree on those of the pre-Christian, pagan culture and religion. The Ukrainian society was basically agrarian at that time and had developed an appropriate pagan culture, elements of which have survived to this day. A kolach (Christmas bread) is placed in the center of the table. This bread is braided into a ring, and three such rings are placed one on top of the other, with a candle in the center of the top one. The three rings symbolize the Trinity and the circular form represents Eternity. Kutia is the most important food of the entire Christmas Eve Supper, and is also called God's Food. A jug of uzvar (stewed fruits, which should contain twelve different fruits) and is called God's Drink, is also served. After all the preparations have been completed, the father offers each member of the family a piece of bread dipped in honey, which had been previously blessed in church. [9., 12]
This is a favorite Ukrainian delicacy. We use it in many forms- uncooked and fried, smoked and salted, baked and boiled. Also, we fry it, cook crackling and even eat it with honey!
Ukraine's widespread fondness for pork products results from its historical conflicts with two of its neighbors- Tatars and Turks. Cattle were a much- prized spoil of war so they were often in short supply, and bullocks, which were used to pull ploughs, were not exactly edible. Pigs were both available and relatively delicious and tender, so pork became a staple.
A choice for First Dish is Borsch. Although the word “borsch” is not translatable, it is famous all over the world. It is difficult to imagine that there is a person on the planet who has never eaten borsch! It is famous, popular and delicious- a must-do on everyone's list of dishes to experience.
So, what is this famous dish? How it is cooked and what should it be eaten with? At firs glance, everything seems simple. Sugar beets are the signature ingredient and borsch is a kind of beet soup. But not everything is as simple as it looks. There are more than thirty varieties of this dish in Ukraine alone, and other versions are prepared in Russia, Poland and even in the United States! So, there are different types of borsch- meat and meatless, hot and cold, with mushrooms, with kidney bean, with prunes, with marrows, turnips, and even with apples! Meat borsch is also varied- it may include beef or chicken. Some recipes recommend the addition of mutton, or goose- grease, and sometimes ham or sausages.
The cooking process for borsch is unique in that all ingredients, including the beets, are prepared separately! Beets should be sprinkled with lemon juice or vinegar in order to preserve their color and then they should be cut and roasted. Afterwards they are peeled, diced and added to the borsch. In the beginning, onions, carrots, parsley are fried together for 15 minutes and tomatoes (or tomato paste) is added at the end. Other vegetables should be cooked separately. All ingredients should be put in bit by bit, at the proper time and in the right order. Cooking time for borsch is approximately 2- 3 hours. Let the flavors mingle for 20minutes before the borsch is served. Prepare to feel giddy when you lift the lid from the saucepan- the aroma is truly delicious! A good accompaniment to borsch is small buns flavored with garlic. This is a temptation you will not want to resist! [9., 11]
Another favorite Ukrainian dish is Varenyky. Great Hohol' in his “Evenings on Khutor near Dikan'ka” described a charming story about Kozak magician named Patsyuk who bewitched the varenyky, so that they dove into the sour cream and then flew into the mouth! Such a legendary reputation should alert you to the fact that these delicious dumplings must be tried. Even better is the fact that there are unbelievable numbers of recipes for the fillings. Pastry for varenyky should be prepared with icy water. Varenyky cannot be frozen, unlike pelmeni or ravioli. Cooks have unlimited possibilities for improvisation. Varenyky can be filled with potato, cabbage, mushrooms, meat, liver, boiled buckwheat and cracklings, kidney beans, or with cottage cheese, apples, plums or poppy- seeds. In summer they are made with berries. Varenyky are served with sour cream; sweet varenyky are served with syrup or honey.
Sometimes varenyky and galushky are hyphenated- galushky- varenyky, - but this is a mistake because galushky is a dish which stands on its own! Even though it appears to be very simple, it is a very tasty meal. Recipes for it have not changed for hundred of years and have been passed down from one generation to another. Both galushky and varenyky should be eaten hot only! This is a rule! Galushky can be made from different types of flour- wheat flour, buckwheat flour, from manna- croup. It is also possible to add cottage cheese, potato or apples to the pastry. They are boiled in either water, milk, or broth. Galushky are served either with fried onions and cracklings or sour cream.
Second dishes are meat, poultry, fish, and of course, pork. Ukrainians also respect poultry, especially when it is stewed; but chicken and goose are cooked more often as holiday dishes. Fish is also popular in Ukraine. Even the names of popular fish dishes stimulate the appetite- stuffed pike, stewed carp with onions and sour cream, pike with horse- radish, jellied pike. It is very difficult to list everything!
Pork is a big winner. Huge numbers of dishes are made from pork in Ukraine. It is fried, baked, stewed, goes into sausages, and various delicacies are prepared with chopped and minced meat. But the perennial party favorite is Pechenya (stewed meat). To say pechenya is just stewed meat is to say nothing. Pechenya is tender, flavorful and fantastic. Besides, the traditional way of preparing pechenya leaves a tremendous space for every cook's creativity. Although the cooking time for pechenya is long, the outcome is worth it! [7., 4]
There are plenty of fruits and berries in Ukraine! You can gather a luxurious harvest in every garden. This remarkable harvest provides the basis of many desserts- varenyky, pyroghy, knedlyks, jellied berries, fruit babkas, and jams. And also drinks- Uzvars. We may say that uzvar is a kind of fruit compote, but it is really much richer and more concentrated than fruit compote. It is delicious mixture of raisins, prunes and spices- cinnamon, cloves, and dried citrus peel. [7., 5]
A cabbage roll is a savory food item made with a variety of fillings wrapped in cabbage. The filling usually includes meat, often beef or pork, seasoned with onion, tomato paste, salt, black pepper, and spices. Other fillings vary and may include mushrooms, vegetables, sauerkraut, or rice. Other ingredients may also be used. The filling is stuffed in cabbage leaves, which are tucked around it like an egg roll. It is simmered or steamed in a covered pot until cooked, and is usually eaten hot.
Cabbage rolls are part of the traditional cuisine of many Central European, Eastern European, and Balkan countries. They are known as holubki in both Czech and Slovak, halubcy in Belarusian, golubtsy in Russian, holubtsi in Ukrainian. [7.,5]
Blyntsi are thin pancakes which are often served in connection with a religious rite or festival in several cultures.
The word "blin" comes from Old Slavic mlin, that means "to mill" (compare the Ukrainian word for blin, mlynets'). Blins had a somewhat ritual significance for early Slavic peoples in pre-Christian times since they were a symbol of the sun, due to their round form. They were traditionally prepared at the end of the winter to honor the rebirth of the new sun (Pancake week, or Maslenitsa). This tradition was adopted by the Orthodox church and is carried on to the present day. Bliny were once also served at wakes, to commemorate the recently deceased.
In Ukrainian cuisine, syrniki are fried curd fritters, garnished with sour cream, jam, honey, and/or apple sauce. They can be filled with raisins. In Russia they are also known as tvorozhniki.
Syrniki are made from the full-fat, creamy cottage cheese, crumbled and mixed with flour, egg, milk, and sugar and fried, generally in a flavorful unrefined sunflower oil. The outsides become very crispy, and the center is warm and creamy.
The name "syrniki" is derived from the word syr, meaning "cheese". [9., 11]
Solyanka is a thick, spicy and sour soup in the Ukrainian cuisine. It may have originated in Ukraine in the 17th century.
There are mainly three different kinds of solyanka, with the main ingredient being either meat, fish or mushrooms. All of them contain cucumber pickles with brine, and often cabbage, salty mushrooms, cream and dill. The soup is prepared by cooking the cucumbers with brine before adding the other ingredients of the broth.
For meat solyanka, ingredients like beef, ham, sausages, chicken breasts, and cabbage, together with cucumber pickles, tomatoes, onions, olives, capers, allspice, parsley, and dill are all cut fine and mingled with cream in a pot. The broth is added, and all shortly heated in the stove, without boiling.
Fish solyanka is prepared similarly, but soup vegetables are cooked with the broth. The meat is replaced with fish, like sturgeon and salmon, and freshwater crayfish. Finally, some lemon juice is added to the soup.
For mushroom solyanka, cut cabbage is heated in butter together with vinegar, tomatoes, and cucumber pickles, with little brine. Separately, mushrooms and onions are heated, and grated lemon skin is added. Cabbage and mushrooms are put in layers, breadcrumbs and butter added, and all shortly baked.
Kutia is a sweet grain pudding, traditionally served in Polish, Lithuanian and Ukrainian cultures. Kutia is often the first dish in the traditional 12-dishes Christmas Eve Supper. It is rarely served at other times of the year.
It resembles koliva from Serbia or Romania (used usually for funerals), but the latter is mixed only with walnuts, sugar and raisins.
Kutia was also part of a common Eastern Orthodox tradition in the Russian Empire, which has become extinct in Russia during the times of the atheistic Soviet Union.
Traditionally it was made of wheat, poppy seeds, honey (or sugar), various nuts and sometimes raisins. In many recipes milk or cream was also used.
Nowadays other ingredients (which were unavailable or just too expensive in earlier centuries) like almonds and pieces of oranges are added. On the other hand, the wheat grain, that is now relatively rarely available in the food stores in an unrpocessed form, is sometimes replaced with barley or other similar grains. [10.]
If you want to taste Ukrainian cuisine you can go to the Restaurant “O'Panas”. It is the best place for learning Ukrainian culture, traditions and life of Ukrainian people. Comfortable small house with a roof made of straw, a real tree, growing inside of the restaurant, and a special interior, presented in the local country style, would bring guests to the old, kind and light- hearted times.
There you can taste such dishes as varenyky with potatoes, mushrooms and cracklings, varenyky with cabbage and cracklings, deruny with home- made sausage, real Ukrainian borsch with sour- cream and pampushki, pancakes with poppey seeds, wall- nuts and honey and many other dishes. [10.]
Chapter III Table manners
In our time it is very important to be well- educated person. And also you should keep some elementary rules while having meal. In our time to invite close friends to the dinner or to be invited to the restaurant or to the cafй by them is a usual thing. Despite of where you go with them it is very important thing to keep table manners like this:
The correct way to sit at table is to sit straight and close to the table. Don't put elbows on the table. Don't cross your legs or spread them all over the place uder the table.
If you want to take a slice of bread you shouldn't use fork or knife. Your hand is quite correct for getting a slice of bread for yourself.
If you want to take a slice of bread from the plate standing on the far end of the table, just say: “Please pass the bread.” Or:”Would you mind passing the bread, please?” Never lean across the table or over your neighbours to get something out of you reach.
Don't hold your spoon in your fist, don't tilt it so as to spill its contents. The fork should be held in your left hand, the knife in your right.
It is wrong to cut all the meat you have got on your plate in small pieces and then eat it. Cut off a slice at time, eat it, then cut off another, holding your knife in the right hand and your fork in the left.
You shouldn't use knife if you eat fish ( it is generally eaten without using knife). The same refers to rissoles, cereal and, in general, to anything that is soft enough to be comforatably eaten with fork or spoon.
The way to eat chicken is to cut off and eat as much as possible by using your knife and fork; the remaining part eat by holding the piece in your hand by the end of the bone.
If you eat stewed fruit with the stones, just take the stones from your mouth on your spoon and place them in your own saucer. Never eat stones (trying to be overpolite).
After stirring your tea, put the spoon on your saucer. Don't leave it in the glass while drinking.
If your food is too hot just waite a bit, there is no hurry. Never cool your food by blowing at it.
To refuse a second helping you should say: “No more, thank you.”
If you like the dish very mush you should say: “It tastes (really) fine” or “It is delicious.”
If you dislike the dish you should say nothing. Keep your impressions to yourself and don't embarrass your hostess.
While eating one shouldn't produce as little noise or sound as possible. It is decidedly manners to speak with your mouth full. Don't put your bread in your soup. Don't pour your tea in your saucer. Don' leave much on the plate: it is impolite towards your hostess. If you liked the dish, it doesn't follow that you should polish the plate with your bread.
Reading at one's meals is a bad habit; it is bad for your digestion and impolite towards others sitting at the same table. [1., 150-152]
Regardless of how you view food, you need it to live. You need the right kinds of food in the right amounts to have a healthy life. Your needs for different kinds of food change as grow and mature. Everyone needs the three key nutrients that provide the body with energy and the necessary building blocks: carbohydrates (sugar and starch), fat, and protein. Unfortunately, in our world today, not every one has access to all of these all the time. World hanger is a global problem that needs to be addressed by all nations.
The right type and kind of foods the body needs to grow, develop, and stay healthy are not known by everyone. A good, daily, balanced diet is key to a healthy life. Do you have a balanced diet? Do you know what you eat every day? Why do you think you eat the foods you eat? Eating the right food everyday not only nourishes our bodies, but it also nourishes our spirits, our creativity and thinking, and our language and interaction with other people.
1. Arakin. “Practice Course of English Language,” 6th ed., M.: Gumanit, 2003: pp. 150-152.
2. Bell. “English with a Smile,” Sigma- Press, 1996: pp. 50-56.
3. Guzhva. “English Topics,” Pholio, 2003:pp. 115- 116, pp. 134-135.
4. Kaverina. “1000 English Topics,” Moskow, 1996: pp. 67-72.
5. Shapran. “English Language. Part II,” Millenium, 2003: pp. 324- 326.
6. Stechishin, Savella. “Traditional Ukrainian Cookery,” 17th ed., Winnipeg: Trident Press, 1991: pp. 108- 115.
7. “What's On,” No. 30/2003, 4- 10 September, pp. 4-6.
8. “What's On,” No. 16/2005, 6-12 May, pp. 8-10.
9. “Your Number. Special Edition,” No. 5/2005, 15-23 May, pp. 7-12.
11. www.google.com.ua/american cuisine
14. www.yahoo.com/ukrainian cuisine
«Національні особливості кухні та манери за столом»
Курсова робота присвячена темі особливостей національної кухні та манерам за столом.
Тема обумовила мету, об'єкт, предмет та завдання дослідження.
Мета дослідження: різноманітність американської кухні, гостинність та щедрість української кухні, а також правила етикету за столом.
Об'єкт дослідження: широкий вибір страв на всі смаки, порівняння української та американської кухні, манери поведінки за столом.
Предметом дослідження є два види кухні, які несхожі одна на одну і різняться за асортиментом, смаком, традиціями та методами приготування страв.
У процесі дослідження використовувались методи адекватні меті та завданням, а саме: аналіз наукових джерел, описовий метод та порівняльний аналіз.
Структура курсової роботи обумовлена логікою дослідження. Курсова робота складається зі вступу, трьох розділів, висновків, списку використаної літератури та резюме українською мовою.
У роботі було розглянуто та проаналізовано різноманітність страв які належать до української та американської кухні. Також курсова робота охоплює такий важливий аспект, як манери поведінки за столом. Адже, в сучасному житті дуже важливо вміти поводити себе правильно, щоб потім не було соромно ні перед людьми ні перед самим собою. Певна частина роботи, яка присвячена манерам за столом є важливою.
Кожна країна має свої звичаї, свої традиції, свою культуру. Наприклад, якщо в Америці їдять яловичину, то в Індії їсти її суворо заборонено. Мусульманам і євреям заборонено їсти свинину, хоча її їдять китайці і народи багатьох інших країн.
Часто різниця стравами які їдять в тій чи іншій країні пов'язана з місцем розташуванням і природними ресурсами в певній місцевості.