НАУЧНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА - РЕФЕРАТЫ - Топики по английскому языку
Топики по английскому языку
The United Nations
The United Nations is an organization of sovereign nations representing almost all of humanity. The United Nations has played and continues to play, an active role in reducing tension in the world, preventing conflicts and putting an end to fighting already under way.
The name UN was devised by US President F. Roosevelt.
The UN Charter was drown up by the representatives of 50 countries and was signed on 26 June 1945. The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 when the charter had been ratified.
There are six main organs of the United Nations - the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the Secretariat and the International Court of Justice. The Court has its seat at The Hague, Netherlands. All other organs are based at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
All UN Member States are represented in the General Assembly. Members of the General Assembly talk to each other in many languages, but officially there are only six - Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
The Security Council consists of 15 Council members and answers for the international safety.
The Economic and Social Council consists of 54 members, elected for three-year terms and coordinates on the economic and social work of the UN.
The Trusteeship Council was established to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories administered by 7 Member States.
The International Court of Justice is the main judicial organ of the UN, consisting of 15 judges and decides disputes between countries.
The Secretariat carries out the substantive and administrative work of the UN. At its head is the Secretary-General.
* The NATO*
North Atlantic Treaty Organization is the organization developed to implement the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on April 4, 1949 and entered into force on August 24, 1949. It was created to establish a military counterweight to the Soviet military presence in post-World War 2 Eastern Europe.
NATO's governing body - the North Atlantic Council which was established soon after the Treaty came into effect. The council is composed of ministerial representatives of the member states and meets of least twice a year. Its chairman, chosen by rotation among the member states.
NATO is the organization which serves the Alliance. It is an inter-government organization in which member countries retain their full sovereignty and independence. The Organization provides the forum in which they consult together on any issues they may choose to raise and take decisions on political and military matters affecting their security.
NATO's essential purpose is thus to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means in accordance with the principles of the UN.
The Court system of the USA
The American court system is complex. It functions as the part of the federal system of government. Each state runs its own court system, and two are identical. In addition, we have a system of courts for the national government. These federal courts coexist with state courts.
Individuals fall under the jurisdiction of two different court systems, their state court and federal courts. They can sue or be sued either system, depending mostly on what there case is about. The vast majority of cases are resolved in the state courts.
The federal courts are organized in three tiers, like a pyramid. At the bottom of the pyramid are the district courts, where litigation begins. In the middle are the US courts of appeals. At the top is the US Supreme Court. To appeal means to take a case to a higher court. The court of appeal and the Supreme Court are appellate courts, with few exceptions; they review cases that have been decided in lower courts. Most federal courts hear and decide a wide array of cases; the judges in these courts are known as generalists.
Судебная система США
Американская система судопроизводства сложна. Она функционирует как часть федеральной системы правительства. Каждый штат управляет своей собственной системой судопроизводства, и не существует двух одинаковых. Кроме того, мы имеем систему судов для национального правительства. Эти федеральные суды сосуществуют с государственными судами.
Частные лица попадают под юрисдикцию двух различных систем судопроизводства, судов их штатов и федеральных судов. Они могут искать по суду или предъявлять иск в любой системе, зависит это главным образом от того, в чем состоит суть их дела. Огромное большинство дел было разрешено в судах штатов.
Федеральные суды организованы тремя рядами, подобно пирамиде. На дне пирамиды - окружные суды США, где тяжба начинается. В середине - апелляционные суды США. Наверху - Верховный суд США. Обжалование санкции происходит для того, что бы передать материалы в суд более высокой инстанции. Апелляционный суд и Верховный суд - апелляционные суды, за немногим исключением, они рассматривают дела, по которым уже были вынесены решения в судах низшей инстанции. Большинство федеральных судов разбирает и выносит решение на счет широкого списка дел рассматриваемых присяжными; судьи в этих судах известны как носящие общий характер.
The court system of England
British court system includes 2 main kinds of courts: civil and criminal. Criminal courts are crown and high courts. The most common type of law court in England is the magistrates' court, which deals with the less serious offences. There are about 700 magistrates' court, which are open to the public and the media, and about 30000 magistrates, known as justices of the peace.
More serious criminal cases such as murder, drug trafficking, rape then go to the Crown Court, which has about 90 branches in different towns and cities. The judge in the Crown court acts as a controlling power; he decides questions of law, gives directions on procedure and evidence. The jury is the main element, consisting of 12 jurors. They decided questions of fact.
Civil cases such as divorce or bankruptcy cases are dealt with in County courts. Criminal appeals are heard by higher courts. For example, appeals from magistrates' courts are heard in the Crown Court, unless they are appeals on points of law. The highest court of appeal in England is the House of Lords. Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxemburg.
The legal system also includes juvenile courts which deal with offenders under 18 and coroners' courts which deals with investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths. There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).
Наиболее общий тип суда в Англии - мировые суды. Существуют 700 мировых судов и приблизительно 30000 мировых судей. Тогда как более серьезные уголовные дела направляются в Суд Короны, который имеет 90 филиалов в различных маленьких и больших городах. Гражданские дела (например, развод или дела о банкротстве) рассматриваются в Судах графства.
Апелляции слушаются высшим судом. Например, апелляции на мировые суды, слушают в Суде Короны, если они не являются апелляцией по статье закона. Верховный апелляционный суд в Англии и Уэльсе - Палата лордов. Определенные дела могут быть направлены в Европейский Суд в Люксембурге. Кроме того, гражданские лица заставили британское Правительство изменить свою практику решений в ряде областей в результате ходатайств (жалоб) в Европейский Суд по Правам Человека.
Судебная система также включает суды по делам несовершеннолетних (которые имеют дело с правонарушителями, не достигшими семнадцати) и суды коронеров суды (которые расследуют насильственные, внезапные случаи смерти). Существуют административные суды, которые выносят быстрые, дешевые и справедливые решения с намного меньшим количеством формальностей. Трибуналы рассматривают дела с профессиональными нормами, споры между частными лицами, и спорами между частным лицом и правительственными отделами (например, по чрезмерному налогообложению).
The British Education System
All state schools in Britain are free. Nine million children attend 35.000 schools.
Children receive preschool education under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in infant's classes in primary schools.
Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11. Primary schools are subdivided into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and junior schools (ages 7 - 11). Then, most pupils go to secondary school called comprehensives which accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups.
At 16 pupils take a national exam called “G.C.S.E.” (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education.
Some 16-year-olds continue their studies in the sixth form at school or at a sixth form college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called “A” level (advanced level) at 18. You need “A” level to enter a university.
Other 16-year-olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for more practical diplomas relating to the world of work, such as hairdressing, typing or mechanics.
Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with “A” level from 18. Students study for a degree which takes on average three years of full-time study. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 and are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony. Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor's degree and the Master's degree.
In England there are 47 universities, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest universities are Oxford and Cambridge.
Political system of the USA
The USA is a federal republic consisting of 50 states. Each state has its own government. In some ways the USA is like 50 small countries.
The government of the USA act according to the Constitution which was signed in 1787. According to the Constitution the USA is a republic and there is a federal system of government. So, the officials of any rank are elected by US citizens, from 18.
The federal power is located in Washington, D.C. It is based on legislative, executive and judicial branches of power.
The legislatives power is vested in Congress, which consists of 2 houses: the Senate, which makes lows and the House of Representatives, which introduce legislation, established federal taxes. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives and 100 senators in Congress. Each state elects 2 senators. They are elected for 6 years. Representatives to Congress are elected every 2 years.
The executive branch is headed by the President who is assisted by the Vice President. The President enforces federal laws, commanded of the Armed Forces. The President can veto a bill unless congress by a 2-3s vote shall overrule him. The Vice President acts as chairman of the Senate, and in the event of the death of the President, assumes the Presidency. The President of the USA is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4 years together with the Vice President. The President can't to be elected more than twice.
The judicial branch is made up of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President for life. Federal Courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states and watches over the other 2 branches.
The national presidential election consists of 3 stages. The Primaries, the Conventions and the General election.
USA has 2 party system. There are 2 leading parties: The Democrats (are associated with labor) and the Republicans (are associated with business and industry).
Political system of Great Britain
The UK is a constitutional monarchy. The Queen is head of the State, but she has little direct power.
The constitution has 3 branches: Parliament, which makes laws, the government, which “executes” laws and the courts, which interprets laws.
The Parliament consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Queen.
The House of Lords has very little power and consists of more than 1000 hereditary lords and peers.
The function of the House of Lords is debating a bill after the House of Commons.
Members are not elected, they sit there because of their rank and the chairman of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor (he sits in special sit, called Woolsack).
The House of Commons has true power. It is made up of 650 Members of Parliament. Members are elected by the people.
The function of the House of Commons is introducing and debating the Bills.
The chairman of the House of Commons is the Speaker.
Parliament has a maximum duration of 5 year. The election campaign lasts about 3 weeks; the British parliamentary system depends on political parties. The party which wins the majority of seats forms the government and its leader usually becomes Prime Minister. The Prime Minister chooses about 20 Members of Parliament from his party and forms his cabinet of ministers. The second largest party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and “shadow cabinet”.
The session is opened by the Queen. Each session lasts for 160-175 days.
There are 2 leading parties in GB: the Conservative Party (the Tories) and the Labour Party. (The Liberal and the Social-Democratic party)
(The Green Party, the Communist Party, the Nation Front)
Tony Blair is the leader of the labour Party and Britain's Prime Minister.
The Palace of Westminster.
Mass media (newspapers)
The mass media plays the important role in reflecting the life of society and in building opinions. It can draw the publics' attention to the most serious political, economic, social and ecological problems. The mass media include newspapers, magazines, radio, television and internet. The earliest kind of mass media was newspaper. The first newspaper was Roman handwritten newssheet called “Acta Diurna” started in 59 B.C. Most newspapers come out daily, besides there are some weekly, monthly, yearly newspapers too. Many newspapers have traditional columns such as "Letters to the Editor», "Contacts and Information", "Events: Details and Analysis". The edition board of a newspaper usually deals with the topical issues of the day. The reader's questions, opinions and suggestions which they send in letters the editor help to improve the newspaper and make it more interesting.
There are two main types of national paper - the "popular" papers and the "quality" papers. The popular papers are smaller in size (they are tabloid size), with lots of pictures, big headlines and short articles. They usually have "human interest" stories - stories about ordinary people and events.
"Quality" papers appeal to the more serious reader, who wants to read about politics and foreign affairs. These papers are bigger in size (they are called "broad-sheets"), with longer articles and a wider coverage of events. They have different pages for home news, foreign affairs, features articles, fashion, business, sport and so on.
Practically all newspapers also give radio and TV programs, weather forecasts. Every newspaper has its readers. One can find newspapers of all kinds: national and local, official and private, quality and popular, newspapers issued for children, teenagers, older age, for all kind of fans: sport-fans, car-fans, music fans, etc. The freedom of press has become actual and real today. Most of the newspapers can boast their independence, their individual styles, and their peculiarities.
Education in the USA
Americans view their public school system as an educational ladder, rising from elementary school to high school and finally college undergraduate and graduate programmes.
Schools in the USA can be divided into state, or public schools, and private schools. State schools are free, and private schools are fee-paying.
Elementary education begins at the age of 6 with the first grade and continues through to the eighth grade. The programme of studies in the elementary school is different in different schools. It includes English, arithmetic, geography, history of the USA and elementary natural science. The elementary school is followed by high school as it is called. It consists of 2 parts: Junior high is for the children aged 12 until they are 15 and Senior high school is attended by students until they are 18.
During the school year the students study 4 or 5 subjects. They must complete a certain number of courses to receive a diploma or certificate of graduation.
After graduating the most of Americans go on to higher education.
The most common types of higher education are the colleges and universities. During the first two years the students follow a basic program. It means that every student must select at least one course from each of the basic fields of study: English, Natural sciences, Modern languages, History or Physical education. After the first two years every student can select subjects according to his professional interest.
The 4-year undergraduate studies lead to a bachelor's degree or “college diploma”. The bachelor's degree can be followed by professional studies. 2-year graduate studies lead to a master's degree.
Our planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but nowadays it's the only place where we can live.
People always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a serious problem. Men have polluted the air, water and land; used most of the Earth's oil, gas and coal; completely killed more than 500 kinds of animals, birds and plants; made and used atomic bombs. It's a disaster and it's still happening.
Many animals and birds are disappearing nowadays. This is because man hunts them, destroys and pollutes their habitat. There is only one way to save wild animals and wild habitats - conservation. That means protecting animals in danger by low, opening more national parks, building fewer new roads, planting more new forests, cutting pollution.
Water pollution. Most big cities pour their waste into seas and rivers. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear wastes, pesticides. Polluted water kills fish and other marine life.
Air pollution. Fume from the chimneys of factories, gases which are in refrigerators and sprays pollute the air. They damage the ozone layer that covers the earth; also they are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains. It can cause illness, and even death. The rainwater mixes with the gases in the air, and then the air pollution also becomes land and water pollution.
Land pollution. The main problem is making large piles of trash. Trash is made of boxes, bags, paper, plastics, bottles and others.
Today, many scientists and world leaders realize that the Earth is in danger. It's really very simple. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place.
The following radical measures must be taken:
1. The replanting of trees that have been cut down;
2. Nuclear tests should be stopped;
3. Purification systems must be installed at plants and factories;
4. Natural resources should be used more rationally;
5.Rare and dying out birds, animals and plant's should be protected;
6.Precaution measures should be taken against the destruction of the ozone layer.