рефераты рефераты




О сайте



Авиация и космонавтика
Административное право
Арбитражный процесс
Банковское дело
Безопасность жизнедеятельности
Бухучет управленчучет
Водоснабжение водоотведение
Военная кафедра
География и геология
Государственное регулирование и налогообложение
Гражданское право
Гражданское процессуальное право
Жилищное право
Иностранные языки и языкознание
История и исторические личности
Коммуникации связь цифровые приборы и радиоэлектроника
Краеведение и этнография
Кулинария и продукты питания
Культура и искусство
Масс-медиа и реклама
Международное и Римское право
Уголовное право уголовный процесс
Трудовое право
Иностранные языки
Без категории
Физкультура и спорт
Хозяйственное право
Цифровые устройства
Таможенная система
Теория государства и права
Теория организации
Трудовое право
Уголовное право и процесс
Религия и мифология
Компьютеры ЭВМ
Сельское лесное хозяйство и землепользование
Социальная работа
Социология и обществознание


НАУЧНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА - РЕФЕРАТЫ - The explaining of the meaning of neologism

The explaining of the meaning of neologism

Chapter 1. The resolve of the understanding and the term of `'neologism''

Till now doesn't exist an unique decision of the question. From what it can be fastening the understanding of neologism, which are the criteria's concerning this or that dictionary of neologism.

The resolving of understanding `'neologism'' by the different investigators becomes clear two points of view, concluding in that, that the term of `'neologism'' using in new style, as a creating on a new material of language in full corresponding with existing in language kinds of words or word combinations, meaning new, beforehand unknown, unexciting understanding, subject, branch of knowledge, profession and so on, f. e. reaction- ядерный реактор, biocide-биологическая война and so on, in such way as neologism, and exactly in new created synonyms already existing in a word language for the meaning of well known understanding almost semantic and stylistic colours of word, which are based on its general meanings, and already to words in new meaning: for example the word boffin (scientist) presented the synonyms of the word scientist, but it already has another semantic colour and so on. Almost marked some difference in contents of that lexical innovations by the cause of its result, of its stability in language, of its clearness of using, of its future destiny when few of them will fast enter into the language, anothers will be less stabile and can be thrown out of using after some short time.

`'Also the presenting of new words connected with resulting of new associations, but the understanding is the same as the language in general, lexical appropriations doing their special actions as the method of connections, rebuilding, differences and clearing with what, that more correctly to show, present and fasten new comprehensions corresponding words and combinations.''

The new-foundation, if it results in periphery, as it gets more fasten demands and unchangeable in word fond. New-foundations, as a rule, presented in the language of science, techniques, art, politic, and in the same time as a neologism in speaking language.

As for the time of criteria for seclusion of new-foundation and neologism exactly to decide it is impossible, it has a sense to use subjective criteria: if it receive the collective language consciousness this or that lexical unit as a new.

For the sequent we will name it with the term `'neologism'', any word for their comfort have the statue of lexical new-foundation, as the quality of own neologism.

Chapter 2: The explaining of the meaning of neologism

The basic complications during the translation of neologisms, it is the explaining of the meaning of the new word.

Particularly the translation of neologism, which meaning has already known to translator, the mission is more easy and it solves by the way of using means, being suspended for the type of the word which belongs to that neologism.

If the new word absents in English-Russian dictionary, as it is need to try to find it in English-English dictionary.

There are `'New words Sections'' in many famous dictionaries. In that time recommends to use dictionaries of the last issue. Many neologisms we can find in dictionaries and sections about slangs. It must remind, that more operative prepared and published dictionaries in little and middle thickness, but they can't satisfy the demands of professionals.

However, the dictionaries in objective causes can't wholly show in their all new-founded words, as for that lexis avoid to include in dictionaries such called `'occasional'' neologisms, individual new-founded, brought by the individual authors, such words also turns `'unlivable words'' and disappear as fast as they appear.

The explaining of the meaning of neologism from the context

Coming out from the term `'neologism'' we can assume, that the translator first meet with his own neologism, naturally he has no imagination, about that which is explained by him.

For that the meaning of neologism we often forced to understand it from the contexts. During the written translation the context as a rule rather informed. During the translation of the word usually secludes two periods;

1. The explaining of the meaning of the word in context;

2. Giving that meaning by the medium of WP.

By the translating of neologism, how it says, the first period plays an important role, and the second is only just a technique question and it must solve with the methods of more usable for the WP.

In general understanding of the context differences to micro context and macro context: under the micro context means the context of the sentence, as linguistic unit, without going out from the circle of the sentence; macro context it is compactness of linguistic unit, surrounding that unit out of the sentence, saying another word-in mixing with them sentences.

Stable type of the macro context is impossible to show- it can be context from group of sentences, chapters or the whole creation, f. e. story, tales, articles or drama.

It is very important that during the using of neologism we must pay attention to macro context, because exactly in it can be `'the prompt word''.

Micro context we can separate into syntactic and lexical. Syntactic context it is the syntactic construction in which used this word, combinations or sentence. Lexical context it is completeness of clear lexical units, words and stable word combinations, as surrounding them we meet this unit.

New words as a rule appeared on base of already existing words and morphs in language. The analyze of that words and morphs can give to the translator real help in clearing the meaning of neologism. For that is necessary to know well the mediums of word shaping in English language, like these:

Giving one more meaning to already existing word Combinations

f. e. the word call in English it means `'named'', `'to call to somebody'' `'telephone ring'' and so on.

One of the most ancient, universal and propagated mediums combinations, which doesn't lose their activeness and now days. One from three of new-founded words in modern English are complicated words.

F. e. carry-back -`'to replace the harm payment to a news period'',

Citiplus- `'City bank (USA)'' and so on.

As the norms of modern English language lets co-ordination of words, carrying the same lexical-grammatical characterizes which connects during the word-foundation of the base, it is explaining that in what reasons the translator works with hard words of neologism, and there are combinations in which:

f. e. closing bank-`'bank, which had already finished its deal, in which took part several banks'';

closing bank-`'bank which has already closed'' and so on.

Now recultivated a row of criteria's for limiting complicated words and word combinations. During the translation of neologisms in English an unique attention has autographical criteria, it's sense is in to review any complex, written together or by dash, as the complicated words and complexes, which components written lone, like combinations.

Dividend-right certificate-`'a certificate which gives you a right to get the certificate'',

Dear-money policy-`'limited credit by the way of rising the percents'',

Fill-or-kill order-`'the order of client to the dealer, which must be done immediately or be annulated.''

In reasons when the word is connected, finishing and beginning in the same sound or consonant, one of them being low:

net + etiquette=netiquette-`'unwritten wholly rule of relations or an information placed in Internet''.

However we must mark that it is not a rule:

Some sections of the American press are upping the case still further by using an even more emotive term `'cyberrape'', to describe the actions of Jake Baker, a 20-year-old American student. (The Independent, 1998).

However, it is necessary to mark, that in many variants viewed incompleteness in writing even the same complex. For example, in reason of man-made `'artificial, made by a man'' 6%- written in lone, 82%-by dash, 12%- together.

The analyze of components numbered in the contents of complicated word, gives to the translator a possibility, knowing its lexical meaning, to clear out the meaning of the whole complex:

Graphite bombing caused power lines destruction turning off life-supports in Belgrade hospitals (Fox News Direct, 1999). How we see the neologism life-supports composed from two pieces life (`'жизнь'') and support (`'поддерживать''), it means that allowed to keep life or be livable, so paying attention on context this neologism we can translate as `'an instrument of life supporting''.

The forming by analogue already existing in language by the way of adding in it different productive affixes

For the right understanding of the meaning formed by that way of neologism, translator is needed to know the productive affixes in modern English language and be able to member the word right in components:

Kiteflyer- `'money receiver under the fixed checks.

Very often in such method of forming neologisms has theatrical colour, particularly in press:

…that they taste the same in Peking as they do in London or New York, and so it was that world burgernomics was born by McDonald's. (The Independent, 1998).

Here the author of the article want to pay attention of the reader on essential developing the net of restaurants `'McDonalds'', the industry of fast food, where take place their own rules and didn't act like another economic rules do in different countries.

© РЕФЕРАТЫ, 2012