НАУЧНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА - РЕФЕРАТЫ - Smoking
Smoking is a big social issue in many countries nowadays widely discussed in newspapers, radio and TV-shows.
The practice of smoking tobacco originated among Native Americans in eastern North America, where tobacco is native. It was adopted by many Europeans following the colonization of the Americas.
According to the World Health Organization, it is most common in east Asia, where as many as two-thirds of all adult males smoke tobacco. Because of concern over the health effects of tobacco smoking, the practice has rapidly declined in recent years in the United States, Canada and western Europe. However, statistics show that at least a quarter of people even in these regions continue to smoke, and there is no indication smoking will go away completely.
Tobacco may be smoked in several forms, the most common being the cigarette, the cigar, and the pipe. Cigarette smoking is the most common. Pipes and cigars are less common, and some stereotype these as exclusively for men. The hookah or water pipe is used in the Middle East.
In the case of cigarette smoking, smoke is inhaled into the lungs. Tobacco smoke contains the nicotine, which forms a strong physical and psychological addiction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, claim that nicotine is a “very addictive drug” that can be “as addictive as heroin or cocaine”.
Medical research has found that smoking is a major contributing factor towards many human health problems, especially lung cancer, heart attack, and other disorders. Research also showed that smoking is an important cause of premature death worldwide.
Passive smoking (also known as environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoking or secondhand smoke) occurs when the exhaled smoke from one person's cigarette is inhaled by other people. Involuntary smoking involves inhaling toxic components. Numerous studies have suggested that passive smoking can be harmful to human health. Passive smoking is one of the key issues in leading to smoking bans, particularly in workplaces.
Smoking is not supported by many people in the world, for the most part by the non-smokers.
Most arguments against smoking are grounded on public health concerns.
In many countries, including the United States, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa and Australia, it is illegal to sell tobacco products to minors.
Several Western countries have also put restrictions on cigarette advertising. In the United States, all television advertising of tobacco products has been prohibited since 1971. In Australia, the Tobacco Advertising Prohibition Act 1992 prohibits tobacco advertising in any form, with a very small number of exceptions.
In addition, in many countries some jurisdictions impose restrictions on where smoking is allowed. Several European countries such as the Republic of Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Italy, Spain and Scotland have legislated against smoking in public places, often including bars and restaurants. Similar bans will also take effect in the rest of the UK at various intervals.
In the United States, many states prohibit smoking in restaurants, and some also prohibit smoking in bars.
Still, many people continue smoking. People start smoking for different reasons. Some say they smoke in order to relax, rest and distract from their daily stress. I think that most of the minors smoke in order to be like everybody else, to be cool and become a grown up.
However, successful ex-smokers are often quite happy and relieved, as well as proud of their success.
Personally, I don't smoke and never smoked since I tried my father's unfinished cigarette at the age of seven. I am very tolerant towards smokers as long as they don't smoke in my presence and it's of no harm to me. Of course it's very harmful for them, but it's their own life and their own choice.