НАУЧНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА - РЕФЕРАТЫ - Formation in England
Formation in England
Education Department of the Russian Federation
Perm Financial-Economic College
State educational institution's branch of higher professional education “Financial academy under the Russian Federation's Government”
Report about the
«Formation in England»
1. Formation in England
All children, who live in the United Kingdom, according to law, are obligated to learn and to obtain formation. In England, Scotland and on Wales the period of required instruction is designated from five of up to sixteen years. In North Ireland - from four to sixteen. According to law, their parents bear responsibility for visit by the children of the schools or other educational institutions. After the performance of 16 years the instruction ceases to bear required nature, and young people can select, according to their possibilities and aspirations, further formation or to begin working activity. About 70% of young people of Britain, which stepped over 16-year boundary, select further instruction, continuing it either in the same school, where they learned in the previous years or passing into the colleges. About 10% begin to work, and rest 20% is selected obtaining working qualification on so-called government of training of programs - special government programs of working preparation. In 1998-1999 in England and on Wales in these programs were begun to operate 285 thousand young people. In Scotland 1999-2000- m the same programs covered 38400.
2. System of management and financing of schools
For the formation in Britain the government of the country answers. It achieves its activity in this direction together with the following state institutes: By department on the formation and the labor (Department of education and Employment) in England; By national assembly (National of assembly) on Wales; By department of formation and by the department.
Higher and further education, preparation and employment (Department of education and Department of higher and Further of education, Training and Employment) in North Ireland.
The public schools of England and Wales are subordinate local to committees on formation. The same system of management and financing of schools by the local educational organs of authority exists and in Scotland, true, here is two schools of gossektora, which are found on the self-guidance. In North Ireland of five committees on formation they manage, lead and govern all subordinate by them by schools.
The system of financing schools is achieved in Britain through the local authorities, which distribute funds the dependence, mainly, on the number of students in one or other school or another. Separately are separated budgets to the so-called special programs, for example, for the support of information texnologies or the development of procedures on the basis of an improvement in the teaching of grammar and arithmetic.
In the specific numbers of the means, isolated from the state budget to the educational purposes, they appear as follows: 2000-2001- m in that connected Kingdom for the formation it will be spent by 4,8% of GNP. In July 2000 the government of the country declared about the fact that as a whole the expenditures for formation in Britain will increase by 6,6% per year. This means that into the period between 1999-2000 and 2003-2004 yr. they are achieved the order 58 billion of pounds sterling.
3. Pre-school instruction
Although the required instruction of children in the schools of Britain begins from the five-year age (in North Ireland - from the four year old), it went in the recent decades rapid development and the expansion of the sphere of pre-school instruction, which made precisely this sphere of one of the most “undergone” reform. The statistics of the familiarizing of British little-ones with the schools in recent years speaks itself for itself: if into 1970 - 1971 only 20% of children of 3-4- summer age they attended schools, then to 1999 - 2000 g. their number grew to 64 percent, i.e., it increased more than three. The fundamental idea of the attraction of little-ones into the schools became concept about the fact that to begin “official” instruction five-year children must not from zero, but already having initial knowledge in the letter and the calculation. The following purposes were specifically designated: to ensure to all children of England and Wales, who reached age of four years, whose parents would want to return them to the preparatory departments schools to the complete or incomplete day, a similar possibility; to increase the percentage of the security of three year children with the free by places in the establishments of pre-school instruction and training to 34% by January 1997 and to 100% by 2004. The program of pre-school instruction obtained solid financial injections. Expenditures for it grew from 1 billion of pounds sterling into 1996 - 1997 to 1,6 billions into 2000 - 2001. To 2003 - 2004 g. the sum of assignments must reach 2 billions. In 1998 in Britain started the general national program, called to accomplish aid in instruction and training of children at the age of up to 14 years, it is named “The Of national Of childcare Of strategy”, i.e., the program national strategy of child care.
4. Elementary schools
Required instruction begins for the British children in so called of praymeri of schools, i.e., in the elementary schools. First five-year children go into the Infant- departments (children's subdivisions) of these schools, and at the age of seven years they pass within the framework the same school into the junior- departments, or into the individual junior- schools. At the age of 11 years the children are transferred from praymeri in secondary of schools (i.e., from elementary schools - to secondary schools). In Scotland law about compulsory education stipulated, that the initial instruction is intended for the children, who did not reach 12-year age. The elementary schools of Scotland are organized to the classes of different steps depending on the age of students - from the first class to the seventh. Thus, attending to 12 years in Scotland the seventh class student still it remains in the elementary school. All classes of the elementary schools of Scotland mixed - there learn both boys and girls (in |Of England there is much Schools with separate training), are not present allocation of classes or streams on progress or abilities of pupils that is why all pupils with achievement of the certain age automatically are translated in a class following on a serial number.
In Northern Ireland after execution it starts to study in the child of four years in the first class initial. Schools. Training at this school lasts seven years then in the age of 11 years children are translated in high school. At will before translation in high school.
The graduate of an elementary school can pass special "translation" testing.
In elementary schools of the country the British educational authorities consider as the major parameter of quality of formation the size of classes that is quantity of pupils in one class. Especially serious influence on training, in opinion of experts, renders this factor in classes of a younger step of an elementary school. Measures on reduction of number of pupils in similar classes are designated among priority in programs Educational reforms of the ruling labour government. According to operating specifications local educational bodies in England and on the Wales are obliged to distribute children of younger age in elementary schools so that number of five, шести-, and seven-year pupils did not exceed 30 in one class.
5. Secondary schools
It is more than 87% all studying state secondary schools in England and 100% of studying state secondary schools of Wales attend so those called of comprehensive of schools, which is transferred as average charter schools. In them on the reaching by the students of 16 years concludes obtaining compulsory education. In their overwhelming majority these schools assume students from the elementary schools without the testing, without the characteristics and the references to progress or behavior, providing thus possibility to all children, who live in this region, obtaining compulsory secondary education. British general education secondary schools in their majority bear no specialization in the sciences studied by them. All objects are studied in each state secondary school for one and the same program.
In Scotland general education secondary schools also assume students on the general bases without the selection. Then in North Ireland the secondary school it is organized according to the principle of electivity depending on the quality of knowledge and abilities of students. Successfully pasts testing on the English, mathematics, chemistry and biology can be enrolled into gremmer of skulz (grammar of schools) - so there are secondary schools for the gifted children, which were preserved in North Ireland. Rest continue required instruction in the usual average charter schools. Percentage of studying in the North of Ireland, attending gremmer of school, in 1999-2000 it composed 40 from the total number of students of secondary schools.
6. Specialized schools
Special school occupies inadmissibly modest place according to the thinking of present reformers today in the system of secondary education. In England were by September 2000 counted in all 530 special schools, which include 312 technical colleges, 99 lingual colleges, 67 sport colleges even 57 colleges of skill. Programs for the special schools appeared in England only very recently - in 1993. These programs provide for the intensified study of special objects together with the study of the general education program of secondary schools. All these schools are also state. Among the outlined reforms in the system of public education, the specialization of schools is registered first and foremost. Half of all charter schools of the country the Labor Government is intended to make specialized, with the intensified study of one or several related objects. By 2006 7500 the schools, which train today according to the general routine, they will become the specialized colleges, which prepare personnel for different regions of British industry. The creation of the special schools of the business, where they will prepare future owners, is provided, all this, in addition within the framework of compulsory secondary education. In a word, the present system of the state charter schools, which train the raznosposobnykh and raznoodarennykh children according to one and the same levelling individual program, it will undergo radical reconstruction: abilities and inclinations of student will be set as the chief concern free compulsory education.
7. Private schools
The private schools of Britain are officially named schools independent (Independent of schools). This means that they are independent from the budget and are financed from other sources, koimi in the majority of the cases are the pays, the parents of students or by voluntary particular sponsors. According to statute, the Independent (they pablik) of school is right to train five and more than students at the age, stipulated by law about compulsory education. Similar schools must be registered in the appropriate government department. They are subject to checkings from the side of inspections. In the United Kingdom there are today approximately 2400 private schools, in which are trained 600000 children and adolescents, which comprises 7% of the total number of students of the country. These schools are subdivided into the so-called fundamental schools (Foundation of schools), community- school (Community of schools) and voluntary (Voluntary of schools). About seven thousand community- and voluntary schools they bear religious nature.
Private schools are led by their own control elements, which consist of the school personnel, the parents of students and representatives of local of community. According to positions about the private schools, the leading organ of a similar school must together with the representatives of church, the director of school and by local educational authorities coordinate rules and conditions of method into the school, taking into account the regulation, developed in 1999.
All private schools are formally opened for the representatives of any religions. However, in practice the large part of the children from Catholic families they learn to the schools, supported by Catholic Church.
The private schools of Britain can be mixed and unisexual (that there is only for the girls, only for the boys), they can be also urban and out-of-town, specialized and general profile, by preparatory (for the children from 7 to 13 years) and the highest step (from 14 to 18), internatnogo type and only day instruction. In the boarding schools, or, as them call, boarding of schools, which in Britain it is counted today into 800, are trained 80 thousand children, which is altogether only one percent of the total number of British schoolboys. Of 7% of studying quotients stake is formed half of all students of British universities. 9 of 10 graduates of private schools obtain the desired university start in life. The difference in the educational standards of the state and independent from the state private school clearly demonstrates the following the number: 11-year age examinations for the preparatory or initial classes successfully pass 90% of studying private schools and only 62% of the schools of state. However, that. however, is determined difference? First of all where stronger materiel of rich private schools, is thoroughly the exacting select sionirovannyy teaching staff, and also difference in school programs. Indeed, besides the financial independence from the state, private schools are independent also in their educational programs, these programs, in contrast to the public schools, do not get down directive on top, but they are developed on the spot, taking into account the special features of this concrete educational institution. In the solid private schools is as a rule, studied considerably more objects, than in the schools of state. Here usually study Greek and Latin, history, skill and religion, classical civilizations and contemporary foreign languages, exact science and applied skill, music, dramaturgy and information texnologies. So in the renowned Itonskiy college mathematics and Latin, earliest history and information texnologies teach in the upper classes at the level of the requirements of Cambridge university. One of the laths of famous Radli of cheek-bones - so to ensure all graduates - the knowledge of information texnologies at the level of the requirements of Cambridge. And this by no means utopia, and accessible reality: to sufficiently say which to 600 students Of radli is necessary 110 computers with the output in Internet. In the same school it is found by one of the richest libraries of Britain through the meeting of classical literature. High(ly)-class artistic workshops, where are mastered almost all conceivable applied skills, here exist. Also here there are the remarkable design studios, equipped with [v] to the last word of technology. Finally - here there is everything that it is necessary to adolescents for the physical development - gymnastic hall and stadium, several swimming pools, 20 tennis Korts, golf course and its own stable with its own kennel in order to train for the dear national sport of Englishmen - hunting. So, if not more, are luxurious the material bases of other renowned private schools - such as Eaton, To kherrou… As it is not difficult to surmise, to public schools to be pulled with them is not easy. However, besides all those enumerated above, advantages of quotient over the quotient state in school there is one additional privilege - to carry out the selective selection students, i.e., to enroll in the numbers of its students bright, capable and gifted. Reason, private schools to private schools dissension, but in this case the speech of idet about strong and serious of them. But how does occur the selection of students into most prestigious of public of schools in Britan? For example in order to fall in Eaton - to it is more accurate say in order to obtain chance into it to fall - it is necessary to be written down into this school after… 10 years forward - i.e., at the age of three years. Moreover this at the worst. However, it is betterIn total to enter the name since a birth. The list of competitors is huge, and "waiting list" guarantees nothing. To find those who is capable to think and think, think non-standard and creatively. In a word, it is necessary high IQ. If testing reveals its presence then the competitor is waited with the invitation to the final test which takes place in two years.
The test also is passed successfully, and the testimonial from of the principal where before the student was trained, is quite positive, then and only then a desired gate of Eton will affably swing open also thirteen-четырнадцатилетний intellectual will dress a student's cloak. From 250 annual graduates of Eton all 250 act in universities. Yes in what! In the most prestigious American, in the most famous European and, certainly, in the majority - in glorified domestic: Oxford, Cambridge and University of London (differently the London university).
8. SEN - school for the child- invalids and for the laggards in the studies
In January 2000 in England and on Wales of 1.71 mln. studying schools they were qualified as being studied with the special educational requirements (special of educational of needs- SEN)). To it is so accepted name in England those children, who experience special difficulties in the studies in the comparison with the majority of their contemporaries, including because of the problems with the health, and also various deviations in the development. 60% of students this category instruction to basic schools is passed; however, to these children is manifested special attention, they are right to design for additional aid from the side of instructors and for the special procedure of instruction. To public schools is prescribed the need of developing the special “policy” for the children of SEN. For them it is also necessary to inform about this policy of students and their parents.
40% OF SEN are trained in special school, intended for a similar contingent.
Solution about the need for the determination child into the special school it is right to carry out the local organs of formation. However, if parents are not agreeable with the similar solution or with the selection for their child of this concrete school, they right to be handled the appeal of the solution in SEN - tribunal, which is occupied by the study of similar problems. The verdict of this tribunal is considered final in resolution of debatable questions concerning that, where and as will be trained child with the special educational requirements.
In 1998 government promulgated activity plan for the purpose to improve formation conditions and to create maximally advantageous conditions for the studies in schools and VUZ (Institute of Higher Education), and also for further career of those, who pass on the category SEN. For the implementation of this program were isolated 35 mln. of pounds sterling in 1999 - 2000 yr. and 20 mln. in 2000 - 2001 g. in addition to of 1900 of the usual charter schools of England obtained in last two years 30 mln. pounds in order to create the improved conditions for the studies child- invalids and children with the weakened sight, the rumor and the disrupted speech.
9. Training program in the schools
The objects, taught to the students of British public schools at the age from 5 to 16 years, at basis their are determined by general national school program. This program is subdivided into 4 key stages. First stage (stage 1) - for the studying at the age 5-7 years (1 2- e classes); the second stage (stage 2) - for the students of 7-11 years (3-6- e classes); the third stage (stage 3) - for studying at the age 11-14 years (7-9- e classes); the fourth stage (stage 4) - for the students of 14-16 years (10-11- e classes). The objects, which are considered basic, teach for each of four stages: English and literature (on Wales - also Welsh language), mathematics, the objects of the natural science (they they are united in Britain in the united object, named Science and including biology, chemistry, physics), technology, gymnastics and religion. History, geography, depictive skill and the music they are the required objects, included in the early stages of school program. Foreign language appears in the school timetable at stages 3 and 4. An essential difference in the school of British from the school Russian is the presence in its program besides the objects, required for the study, also those disciplines, which are selected by students according to their interests and inclinations. All public schools are obligated to ensure the possibility to study religion with student. Local organs formations bear responsibility for the development of these programs for the subordinate by it schools. In the programs of religious formation must be present the study of Christianity, but also other basic religions, which confess the citizens living in the territory of the United Kingdom. Nevertheless the study of religion is not required, and at will parents their children can be freed from the visit of these lessons. In the state charter schools it is provided the sexual formation for all students, within the framework which they are studied besides other disease, transferred through sex. Special attention is paid in this case to AIDS. Parents are right to require so that their children would be freed from the study of objects on the sexual formation - with exception of those, which bear required nature.
10. GSCE, or certificate about completion of secondary school
The certificate, which testifies about obtaining of compulsory education, it is in England and on Wales so-called GSCE - General Of certificate of Of secondary Of education. For obtaining this certificate, or in English, certificate, with the reaching by the students of 16 years and the end of 11 classes of charter school, it is necessary to return final examinations. The special qualification committees deal with the development of examination programs (Qualification and Curriculum Of authority), that are appeared are independent by the government agencies. The ministry of formation of the country asserts these programs.
In contrast to Russia in Britain it is accepted to enter estimations not by numbers and by letters. In the British school there is a force-eight system of estimations. As the successful result are considered obtaining such estimations as “[A]*”, “A”, “in”, “[s]”. Therefore the degree of the success of one or other school or another in the formation is measured by the number of students, who received according to the results examinations GSCE five or is more than the marks between “[A]*” and “[s]”. In all on GSCE are surrendered eight examinations on eight objects.
In the case of the unsuccessful delivery of examinations the student is right in year to retake them. For those, who will intend to retake examinations, school provides for special annual course - he so he is called: the course of preparation for peresdachi of examinations GSCE.
After returning examinations on GSCE and after obtaining certificate about the completion of required instruction, to leave school to 16-year youth or to the girl it is not necessary. At will being studied, successfully returned examinations on GSCE, it can continue instruction all in the same general education public school in order, after passing its highest steps, to return the examinations, which open to it university education, or to reach the specific professional preparation. Obtaining certificate about the completion compulsory education (GSCE) right to the entering into the higher educational institution does not ensure. In order to obtain this right, it is must to return the examinations of another level, so-called level “A” (A -levels) on several objects (as a rule, on two-three). The study of these objects is passed to the classes of the highest step of charter school or in the college. These classes are named the 12th and 13th classes. At the end the 12th class students pass intermediate examinations A -levels on the studied objects. At the end of the 13th class are surrendered the examinations exhaust, they entrance. Thus, the classes of level “A”, or A -levels, they are “highest echelon of school instruction” with the preparation in the university.
11. Quarry -edvayzer in the schools of England
There is in the British schools the official, to the method to whom the students of upper exhaust classes come so frequently, that now and then in its office is built the turn. Who this? Already not school whether doctor? By no means. These are - adviser on the selection of future profession, on job placement after school, consultant on all questions, which are concerned further studies, the supply of statements in VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) or college. This is school careers of adviser. With its aid the students obtain the information about which order of the supply of statements in VUZ, such as objects it is desirable to select for the study on the level “A” in order to enter one or other department or another of university, they learn about their rights to obtaining of financial loan for continuing the studies or about the procedure of job placement. Hundreds of questions disturb in the period of determination “whom to be” 16-18- summer students. And their first teacher by this method - school quarry -edvayzer. The presence of this organic unit in the school is provide ford with statute about the fact that all students of British schools must have the possibility to obtain information, councils and manuals relative to their future career - i.e., of further studies and professional selection. In accordance with the recent solutions, all schools must include in training program for the classes being studied 9-11- X program on the professional orientation.
12. Enrollment into VUZ (Institute of Higher Education)
Entrance examinations in British VUZ there does not exist. In the year before the namechennogo entering, concluding the last class of school, which is studied will be given statement in the higher educational institution. Moreover not into one, but immediately into six. Of course in one and the same selected specialty. After examining all characteristics of candidate, sent both by it personally, and its school, after studying the results of intermediate school examinations, universities make decision about that, there will be they to invite this competitor to the studies or not. In the case of the negative solution the competitor of place obtains information about the failure. In the case of the positive solution - so-called [offer] (proposal of place). [Offer] can be both the conditional and bezuslovnym. Bezuslovnyy indicates, independently of the results of final examinations in the school to candidate is already provide ford place at this university. Conditional proposal implies that the candidate will be accepted, if he collects on the school examinations the required quantity of marks.
But how, however, and why to enter immediately into six universities? To time it meetsya, to be trained immediately in six is by no means impossible. System six statements only allows the possibility of wider selection - both for the future students and for the universities. Each university will find student, who corresponds to his requirements, and each student will obtain the university, which he deserves. However, how much offerov not obtained the candidate didate (it may happen that it does not obtain not one), not long before the final examinations in the school it will have to make the final decision: to name one of its invited universities by its “solid selection” and one more - “by fallback position”, and all the remaining proposals (if they, certainly, were) - to deflect. If candidate will collect the quantity of marks, which corresponds to the requirements of his university “solid selection”, then in it he will be enrolled automatically. If marks it proves to be sufficiently as soon as for “alternate”, it means in it to it and it is in prospect it learns. In the case of the shortage of marks not into one of the universities the candidate can traverse the special system of the search for places at those universities, which were short changed the necessary number of students, and to fill the existing in them vacancy. By accurately such means will search for to himself place that competitor, who did not obtain invitations generally. But if and in this search candidate proves to be outboard, he has the right to retake school examinations and to attempt to enter university for the following year. In the student enrolled into VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) the so-called year of leave is the right to take: this means to reserve that isolated to it place and to approach to studies year later. This right use today many students, trying in its tempering year to earn extra money to the forthcoming studies.
13. Universities in Britain
The remarkable world record belongs on the part of higher education of Britain: in this country per capita of population comes the largest number of universities. But how much precisely VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) are counted in this university country? Eighty seven. Plus to this of 64 VUZ of neuniversitetskogo profile. Concept “college” often introduces a certain confusion into understanding of British educational system, therefore as by college it is accepted to name and charter schools (of Eaton's type), which are not been VUZ, and VUZ as such. In this case, college- VUZ can exist independently, and it can come out as the component part of the university. Thus, of several colleges and schools consists one of the most prestigious universities of Britain - university. They heard many about the renowned London school of the economy and political sciences or about the Imperial- college, but not many know that also the first and the second are the component parts London university, which is used for them as base and administrative center. Student, who is successfully trained in one of the colleges or the schools LU (University of Of london), can select “floating” method of instruction, i.e., the part of the course study one college, and part - in other.
Thus, there is neither in Cambridge nor in Oxford united “geographical” concept - university in the sense of our university town or separate building. For example, Cambridge university consists of 23 autonomous colleges. And therefore graduate usually speaks that he it graduated from not Cambridge university, but, let us say, Kingz or the Trinity (they are intended colleges with a similar name). The universities of Cambridge and Oxford exist with XIII of century, being the citadel of the traditions of classical formation. Students, professors to this day haughty bear the ancient (in the sense of style) mantles, which stagger the imagination of the staring on them foreign tourists. In Britain there is a solid persuasion: good university - old university. Therefore the diplomas “of novices” - those VUZ (Institute of Higher Education), that, was obtained university status recently, are evaluated as less prestigious and less solid. It is numerous old and even ancient universities in Britain: for example, holy Andrews's university, in whom from the autumn will begin to learn crown prince William, this university was laid in THE XV century. The universities of the Scottish cities of Glasgow and Aberdeen are also its contemporaries, and to the capital university of Scotland - to the university of Edinburgh - to one century it is less. For this very reason the diplomas of data of universities were always and to this day they remain in the price. However, in essence the universities of Britain were based in THE XIX - beginning of the 20th century. The significant number of new universities they appeared in the 60's now narrower than last century. And the universities of last wave entirely already became novices, appeared on the map of higher education of Britain in 1992, when it was decided to appropriate status of universities that been to polytechnic institutes. In the university rating, which is yearly conducted in Britain, former [politekhi] are separated into the special category “new universities” and they compete for the title of the best precisely in this” group dependent on age. Among the latter it is numerous very promising VUZ, which had time literally after several years to show its highest (frequently not less, but even higher, than in old universities) potentials. There is in university system in Britain and one additional specific character: instruction in university it is divided into the courses of first stage (undergraduate) and the courses of the following step (postgraduate). Of course first step last, as a rule three years, sometimes four, and in the medical departments - five or six, after which graduate obtains the degree of baccalaureate on the object studied by it, for example: the baccalaureate of skills, the baccalaureate of jurisprudence, the baccalaureate of natural sciences and so forth Approximately third of those, who passed first university stage, after obtaining baccalaureate, they continue instruction the courses of the highest step: postgraduate. The duration of course is as a rule, two or three years. The degree of master or doctor is appropriated at the end. This degree indicates higher qualification in the selected profession and respectively are opened greater possibilities for the career.
14. State financing of formation at the universities
Material difficulties experience, however, not some academicians alone, but, first of all, British students. Studies at the university always required of the local student of the investment of the means: it is necessary to very to pay for the dwelling (university it can, as a rule, grant paid hostels, or it is possible to very to remove room in the private sector), for the teaching aids, to ensure itself with subsistence and so on and so forth. However, after studies as such until recently for British citizen to, fortunately pay it was not necessary (from the foreign students pay traditionally it was collected and it is collected, in this case each university it has its valuations). However, beginning from 1998-1999 academic years in British it was introduced the yearly pay for the instruction, which is approximately one thousand of pounds sterling. For the student budget the innovation proved to be the present impact: in the subsequent two years the number of statements in the British VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) sharply it was reduced. The wave of the student strikes, which require the cancellation of pay for the instruction, gave a ride on the British universities. Scotland by the decision of its parliament soon abolished pay for the universities, after making thus its educational institutions most attractive: today they lead in the number of statements coming in them from high school seniors of all corners of Great Britain. In the opinion the union of the students of Britain, the state financing of university education is clear it is insufficient. Today each fifth student throws studies in the first courses because of the shortage of means. Pay for the instruction for all is required and no whether in this rule of exceptions. Exceptions nevertheless are located: those are freed from the payment students, income in whose families is located below the specific minimum. The local organs of formation can isolate the money assistance, named by Grant, to the financial requiring themselves students or student- invalids. Grant's size is determined on to individual basis. For the outstanding studies the student can be awarded by allowance. Finally, as the third version of financial support can serve the special student loan, size and conditions of delivering which are determined by the company of student loans (Student Of loans Of company). The return of loans will be produced already after the completion of studies from the wage of young specialist. In this case, according to the conditions of the student loans, determined by government, to pay out loan the graduate of VUZ (Institute of Higher Education) it will begin only after that. as its annual earnings will exceed number into 10 thousand of pounds sterling. But if for some reasons wage descends below this mark, the payment of loan will be stopped. In the opinion students, the payment of student loan is very heavy burden for the young specialists, and therefore requirement to abolish pay for the university instruction remains the main slogan of the day of British students.
15. Instruction in length into the life
In 1998 the British ministry of formation developed and affirmed strategic program, named lifelong of learning, then in the instructions during entire life. This program is provided for the development of such forms of the instructions, which would allow to sit down at the desk people of any age and any educational level with the fact, to strengthen their knowledge, to master new professional habits or to obtain elementary literacy, if in view of the specific circumstances it was impossible to make this in the school age (speech in this case it goes, as a rule, about the immigrants from the Third World Countries). Instruction for the adult is conducted in Britain in essence in so called the centers of instruction and in the special colleges, which are found in local educational in the activity similar of instruction, as a rule, with the active the participation different voluntary and public organizations, such, as the association of the instruction of workers. Special courses for the adult can be present so, also, in the number of universities. To the organizations, which correspond for the development of strategy of formation for the adult the national institute of the continued formation for the adult and the agency relate Base training.
Curriculums for adults often offer following programs: foreign languages, physical preparation and sports; a various sort of needlework and applied skill; computer technologies.
About 1,1 million adults are trained today in England and on the Wales on various sorts rates in the educational centers and colleges.