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НАУЧНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА - РЕФЕРАТЫ - Classic philosophy of quality

Classic philosophy of quality

Classic philosophy of quality

1. What is quality?

“That correctly and it is good to live, it is needed to be able and want to live it is correct well».

“If even everybody will do everything, that in his forces is however is an answer, adequate complication of problem of quality» Edvards V. Deming Quality and necessities of Man.

The Modern picture of quality of wares is based on principle of the most complete implementation of requirements and wishes of user, and this principle must be stopped up in basis of project of any good. The user of good can be both a separate man and collectives of people are enterprises, organizations or society on the whole (picture 1).

Picture 1. Good as mean of satisfaction of necessities

In any case necessities are related to properties of human personality. The psyche of man is uttery difficult, and the enough complete theories of necessities of man are not yet built. Nevertheless, now there is a row of theories, describing kinds and mutual relations of necessities on the basis of which the developer of wares can operate sufficiently sure and to labour for good practical results.

One of the most widespread theories is a theory of hierarchy of necessities of English scientific Abraham Maslou (Abraham Maslow) [1], pulled out them in 50th of our age. On Maslou, there are 5 groups or levels of necessities (see of Ris.2). A lower level is basic or physiological necessities, such, as requirements are in food, clothes, dwelling et cetera, which are determined biological nature of man. More high level is requirements in protected from the “shots of fate», such, as accidents, illnesses, disability, poverty and other which can violate possibility of satisfaction of necessities of previous level - physiological necessities. Yet more high level is social necessities, that requirements in socializing, mutual relations with other people. On Maslou, the necessities of every level are related to possibility of satisfaction of necessities of previous level, and social necessities are caused aspiration more fully to satisfy requirements in protected. A next level is necessities of confession, or necessities of “Ego». It is requirements in prestige, respect of circumferential, to glory et cetera The greatest level of necessities is requirements in self-perfection, or necessity of development. It is possible to consider that all these types of necessities exist not only for a separate man but also for the collectives of people, including enterprises and society on the whole.

Picture 2. Role of good in satisfaction of necessities on the basis of theory of A. Maslou

In times of the use of theory the row of clarifications major which it is been from was done:

· on Maslou, passing to the necessity takes place more high level, if the necessity of previous level is satisfied on 100%; modern psychologists consider that this percent less than - poryadka 70% and even less;

· the hierarchy of necessities of concrete man is in a great deal determined the level of development of his psyche, it changes from a man to the man and different for one man in different periods of his life. With development of psyche of man of necessity more high level become major as compared to the necessities of more low level.

2. Quality, value and cost of good

In an order to satisfy the necessities of man, good must be certain characteristics, and degree of accordance between properties of good and determines quality of good the necessities satisfied with his help. The degree of satisfaction of user good serves as a measure of quality of wares presently, determined correlation of cost and value (to the use value) of good: {Quality} = {Satisfaction of user} = {Value} / {Ctoimost'}.

For a producer all products, not containing defects which would hinder a sale this products, have a value. For an user those properties of products, which correspond his expectations, have a value only. For us three basic between's are important by a value and cost:

- between a value and cost of products for an user (Q);

- between a value and cost of products for a producer (QP);

- between a value for an user and producer (E); this correlation determines the competitiveness of production to a great extent.

We will consider, as these correlations changed in the process of development of production in a 20-mcode age.

Conceptions of enterprise and quality

“Approach to the problem is more important, than its decision» Law of Hall.

There always are internal and external aims in entrepreneurial activity. Internal aims are put before itself by a businessman, beginning or developing business. They, as a rule, personal is an increase of own profit, satisfaction what - that the personal ambitions and inclinations et cetera External aims of enterprise are those aims on which expects society, letting a businessman his activity. For society not enough, that a businessman only deducted him a certain stake arrived as taxes, it is necessary for him, that activity of businessman helped to decide those tasks, which society before itself puts.

In the most general sense, these tasks are related to upgrading life in society, on the principle that society understands under such quality. Activity of businessman is always social, and in the developed society businessman it realizes perfectly. He builds the activity on the basis of philosophy of enterprise are conceptions, describing most general principles, going near the production of wares and services, management of such operations, mutual relations between a businessman, employees of enterprise, society, state, natural environment. Philosophy of enterprise is based on cultural and national traditions, general conceptions of development of technical civilization. Major component part of philosophy of enterprise is philosophy of quality, which has a social orientation also. We will look, as maintenance of modern management of quality is determined in accordance with the international standard of ISO 8402:

"Method of management organization, based on the collaboration of all its workers, oriented to quality and providing through satisfaction of queries of users, achievement of aims of of long duration enterprise success and benefit for all workers of organization and economy on the whole".

Note 1. “all its workers» are meant by all personnel of organization, at all levels of hierarchy of its organizational structure.

Note 2. Substantial for providing of success of this method is the convinced and persistent guidance from the side of higher administration and teaching and retraining of all workers of organization.

Note 3. Term “quality» at the total management of quality absorbs in itself and achievement of all aims of management.

Note 4. “benefits for… economies are on the whole meant» by implementation of requirements of all subjects of economy».

In this determination we see how follow in one unit success of businessman, benefits for the employees of enterprise, - the hired workers, being not owners, - and benefits for a public economy on the whole. Practice shows, what only at such harmonious concordance of interests of all participants of entrepreneurial activity is arrived at steady of long duration success.

In the modern industrial-developed countries at the beginning of 20th age philosophy of enterprise, based on conception of the so-called "society of consumption", began to be folded, I.e. societies, the purpose of existence of which is satisfaction of necessities of fellow-citizens. Finally this conception of society was formulated in 50th. A major contribution to embodiment of this conception in life brought in president of the USA John Ficzheral'd Kennedy, pulling out conception of state defense of rights for an user at the beginning of 60th. In obedience to this conception, the state is under an obligation actively to interfere in the mutual relations of producer of commodities and services and user on a side last, barriering him from of poor quality products and undertaking defense of his rights. A law was accepted on defense of rights for users.

The main figure of such society is an user. His requirements (if they are socially safe) possess priority above possibilities of producer, and are on the defensive establishments of the state and society. Can be considered major achievements of "society of consumption":

ь successive making reality of ideas of trade freedom, that resulted in international market of commodities and services creation - an user in any country can acquire a commodity, produced in any country; investigation of it is the sharp intensifying of competition of producers, intensifying of their fight for upgrading products and competition prices, for the decline of terms of output of commodity to the market and at the same time strengthening of co-operation and collaboration in a production and advancement of commodities to the market;

ь development of the systems of state and public defense of rights for users on high-quality products and services; these systems of defense not only allow an user to exact from a producer harm for of poor quality products and services but also warn the market entry of such products, and also limit monopolization of market a producer; investigation of it is a necessity of producer to give an user the system of proofs of quality of commodity yet till user this commodity purchased;

ь high enough level of consciousness of users which agree to pay for quality and ready to co-operate with a producer in his increase.

In spite of all attractiveness of conception of "society of consumption", to the 90-th it became clear to the years, that out-of-control growth of necessities can lead, at least, to serious violations of properties of environment, and even to cause ecological catastrophe. The resources of Earth are not counted on that greater part of population of planet entered in "society of consumption". At the same time conception of development of most states is directed exactly on included in "society of consumption" (Russia is a not exception). Therefore some new philosophy of enterprise and, accordingly, new philosophy of quality will develop in the near time. The separate lines of new philosophy of quality show up already now, for example, in conception of ecological management and in conception of the production system of "Toyota".

Thus, in accordance with existent philosophy of enterprise, all plenitude of responsibility for quality of wares and services lies on a producer. A producer in different historical intervals variously reacted on this responsibility, incarnating different philosophy of providing of quality.

Stages of development of philosophy of quality “Commodities return, buyers - it is not» Robert At. Pich.

In history of philosophy of quality exist 4 recovered and proceedings phases which, in complete accordance with the laws of dialectics, contradictions developed under constraint between the internal and external aims of producer - providing of quality of the produced products and accordingly strengthening of position of producer at the market (external purpose) and increase of efficiency of production, that by the increase of income of company (internal purpose). It is contradiction on every stage of development of production, market and society had the specific and settled variously. The evolution of methods of providing of quality is resulted on Picture 4.

It began together with a handicraft and entered in practice of separate masters, which checked up the own work, masters which looked after work of apprentices, buyers which sorted out wares carefully, to do shop. It is not necessary to forget workshop organizations of medieval cities, which, if to be expressed a modern language, certified masters, - awarded the rank of master after the serious tests of quality of good. Each the wares was individual.

In 70th XIX age the idea of standard quality gave birth in a gun production (factories of Samuel Kol'ta) - wares going not from the details driven in to each other, but from by chance chosen from party, that rotabless. Before assembling these details were checked up by calibers, and the worthless. Control and was carried out by the specially trained inspectors.

A prominent contribution to development of this phase was brought in by the American automakers - Henry Martin Leland (founder of firm "Kadillak") and Henry Ford. Leland first applied in a motor-car production work on calibers and a "communicating" and "uncommunicating" caliber thought of a pair. In March, 1908 the experts of Britannic took away casual appearance 3 copies from export party of cars "Kadillak", arriving to England, and took apart them to the last screw. All details were brought down in a heap, and then - what details from this heap withdrew and replaced repair parts, adopted again at random in local on a sale and maintenance of cars "Kadillak". Then the group of mechanics, armed only screwdrivers and wrenches, collected machines anew and started up engines. Two machines were led from a maiden attempt, and one - with the second, and all of them left on the protracted rolling on the vehicle testing point of Bruklends just handed over in exploitation. And when the again collected machines confirmed the complete identity of the workings descriptions the parameters of cars of shop-assembled, Britannic diplomaed a firm "Kadillak" and silver cup with inscription "For standardization". After it on a tablet with the coat of arms of firm on cars "Kadillak" inscription of "Standart of the world" appeared is an ensample for the whole world.

Ford was applied by an assembly line and entered in place of entrance control of assembling output control on those productions, where these was made, that on assembling began to act only suitable, high-quality wares. He created separate service of technical control, independent of production also.

By scientific generalization and ground of experience, accumulated on this stage, to steel of work of the American scientist, engineer and manager Frederic At. Teylora, comrade-in-arms Ford. Conception of scientific management, including approach of the systems, skilled management, is exactly offered to them, idea of division between workers and providing of high-quality and effective work of organization, idea of the scientific setting of norms of labour. He developed the basic ideas of hierarchical structure of management organization, which in a final kind formulated Anri Fayol' and Max Veber. Maybe, that due to activity of F. U. Teylora I G. Forda conception of organization of machine production (production system of Forda - Teylora), which in basic lines lasted to the present tense and is the model of organization of production of most modern enterprises, was created. Only in 70th on changing other conception began to come it (production system of Toyota).

Basis of conception of providing of quality of this phase can be formulated so:

“An user must get suitable wares only, I.e. wares, to the standards. Basic efforts must be directed on that not suitable wares (marriage) would be cut off from an user».

Successive embodiment in life of this conception drove already to 20th to that the quantity of inspectors in hi-tech industries (aviation, military industry) began to make to 30 - 40% from the quantity of production workers, sometimes and more.

Within the framework of this conception, upgrading is always accompanied growth of expenses on his providing, I.e. aims of increase of efficiency of production and upgrading wares are contradictory (can not be attained simultaneously).

3. Phase of quality management

This phase begins with 20th XX ages as attempt if not to settle, or weaken contradiction in a form, peculiar previous phase. The point of counting out is consider works, executed in Department of technical control of firm Western Electrician, USA. In May, 1924 employee of department doctor Shukhart passed to the chief a short message, which contained the method of construction of diagrams, known now all over the world as check cards of Shukharta Statistical methods, offered Shukhartom, gave in the hands of instrument, which allowed to concentrate efforts not on that, how to discover and withdraw worthless wares to their shipping a buyer, but on that, how to increase the output of suitable wares in tekhprocesse.

One of remarkable achievements of practice of quality management was become by creation of public accountant service in quality, which unlike the departments of technical control was engaged in not products, but by control of small selections from parties of wares checked up the capacity of the system of providing of quality on a production.

On this phase became the kernel of conception of providing of quality:

“A primary objective is saved - an user must get suitable wares only, I.e. wares, to the standards.

Introduction of conception of providing of quality in practice allowed considerably to promote efficiency of production at high enough quality of wares and services, that created terms for forming of global market of commodities and services. At the same time, understanding grew that the certain limit of output of suitable wares has every production process, and it a limit is determined a not process in itself, but system, that by all aggregate of activity of enterprise, organizations of labour, managements, which this process flows in. Under reaching this limit that contradiction operates with a new sharpness, what on the previous stage, - the aims of increase of efficiency of production and upgrading wares become contradictory.

4. Phase of management of quality it is accepted to count

Beginning of phase of management of quality with 1950 years. A turning event was become by appearance with lectures before the leading industrialists of Japan of doctor Edvardsa Deminga, American. For 12 lectures doctor Deming met with hundreds of leading managers of the Japanese firms. By him, and also by Joseph M. of Dzhuranom, other American, also invited in order of governmental technical help to Japan, the program the basic idea of which was developed: "Basis of quality of products is quality of labour and high-quality management on all levels, that such organization of work of collectives of people, when every worker enjoys the work".

The program was based already not on perfection only of production processes, but on perfection of the system on the whole, on the direct participating of top management of companies in the problems of quality, teaching of all employees of companies from top to bottom to the basic methods of providing of quality, support on motivation of employees on high-quality labour. Place of conception of non-admission of marriage to the user and conception of increase of output of suitable wares was taken the by conception "0 defects".

Exactly due to successive realization of ideas of Deminga, Dzhurana and Kaori Ishikavy Japan, country, more than poor natural resources and broke war, became one of the richest countries of the world.

Basic contribution to development of both this phase and to subsequent, brought in

Krosbi (Crosby, Philip B.) - in 1964 offered the program "0 defects"; it was during many years the vice-president of company ITT, was the president of American society on a quality (ASQS) management, presently consultant of many companies all over the world, heads a consulting firm Philip Crosby Associates, Inc.

Deming (Deming W. Edwards) - being one of leading specialists on the statistical methods of providing of quality, in 1950 got invitation from the Japanese union of scientists and engineers (JUSE) to take part in a salvager Japanese industry. There he and offered the program of management of quality from 14 points, developed principle of permanent improvement qualities which produced revolution in Japanese industry. In his honour of JUSE in 1951 founded the very prestige annual bonus of his name - prize for the Japanese firm, bringing in a most contribution to development of ideas of management of quality, analogical prize for a foreign firm and individual prize. With 1980 the American association of statistics awards the bonus of the name of Deminga also. Deming was one of the consultants most known in the world in area of management of quality, author more than 200 books in this area, honoured doctor of ten of the American universities. In 1987 got the personal congratulation of president of the USA. Died in 1995.

Feygenbaum (Feigenbaum Armand V.) - developed principles of total quality management and parallel (simultaneous) engineering; more than 10 years worked in General Electric, after founded an own consulting firm General Systems Company, Ltd, the president of which is to the present tense. This firm - one of world centers of consultations in area of management of quality.

Ishikava (Ishikawa, Kaori) - thought of the "circle of quality", offered the diagrams of "reason is investigation" (diagram of Ishikavy), developed conception management quality all collective of enterprise participates in which. From the beginning of 50th of more active participating in the program JUSE in quality. one of developers of new conception of organization of production, incarnate on a firm "Toyota" (production system of "Toyota", TPS).

Dzhuran (Juran, Joseph M.) - developed principle of "triads of quality"; it is one of anchorwomen business - consultants in area of quality.

Mesing (Masing Walter) - offered a reference "book in quality" as a basic document of the system of providing of quality of enterprise.

Maybe, that exactly on this phase of providing of quality there was a management of quality in his modern understanding. Contradiction between upgrading and growth of efficiency of production in his former forms was overcame - application of new ideas of management allowed simultaneously to promote quality and reduce production inputs. An user practically in entire countries began to get goods and services of the highest quality at moderate price - the idea of “society of consumption» realized. At the same time, conception of the standartized quality, in obedience to which under high-quality good is understood, to which defined requirements and fixed in norms producer, and an user is right either to purchase the offered product or reject it, resulted in intensifying of contradiction between quality and efficiency in a new form, - at an error in determination of queries of users on leaving of suitable, from point of producers, wares to the market of expense extraordinarily great.

This phase began to be engendered in the middle 60th as development of ideas of previous phase in the direction of more complete satisfaction of queries of users. The necessity of development of this phase is related to world market of commodities and services development, sharp intensifying of competition at this market and policy of state defense of interests of users.

All of it resulted in a situation, when placing to the market of products, having “child's illnesses» or satisfying the queries of user in less degree, what wares of competitors, CPLD from one side, with development of theory of reliability of wares, and de autre part, with wide introduction of the computing engineering and CADD in a development of products process. Basis of conception of new phase was become:

1. idea, that greater part of defects of wares is mortgaged on the stage of development from insufficient quality of project works;

2. transfer of centre of gravity of works on creation of good from the model tests of pre-production models or parties to the mathematical design of properties of wares, and also design of processes of production of wares, that allows to discover and remove designer and technological defects yet to beginning of the stage of production;

3. place of conception "0 defects" were occupied by conception of the "satisfied user";

4. high quality must be given an user for an affordable cost which goes down constantly, as a competition on markets is ever-higher.

The basic ideas of new phase are outspoken in works of Geniti Taguti, doctor Micuno, in scientific developments of companies "Toyota" and "Micubisi".

Taguti (writing of Taguchi is sometimes used - Taguchi, Genichi) - offered the function of losses of quality, developed the method of planning of industrial experiments.

Within the framework of phase of planning of quality it is succeeded practically to overcome contradiction between quality and efficiency of production in his existing forms, and a new phase arises up at the display of new form of this contradiction. For example, requirements of user, that not only products but also production process would be esuriently, I.e. would not do damage an environment. This phase is only engendered presently, and its conception yet finally was not formed.

List of literature

1. Nothing superfluous. Philosophy of conduct of business from SEO Gillette: James Kilts, John Manfredi, Robert Lorber: God "send, Ivanov and Ferber", - 2008.

2. "The Ultimate Book of Business Thinking: Harnessing the Power of the World's Greatest Business Ideas" by Des Dearlove.

3. "Gemba Kaizen: A Commonsense, Low-Cost Approach to Management" by Masaaki Imai.

4. "Harvard Business Review On Innovation" by Clayton M. Christensen, Michael Overdorf, Ian MacMillan, Rita McGrath, Stefan Thomke.

© РЕФЕРАТЫ, 2012