НАУЧНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА - РЕФЕРАТЫ - Cambridge
1. History of the University
5. Education system
6. What to do in Cambridge
"Hinc lucem et pocula sacra"
("From here, light and sacred draughts")
The second oldest university after Oxford in the English-speaking world, founded in 1209 by a group of students and teachers, who had fled from Oxford after a conflict with the local population. At Oxford and Cambridge form the so-called Oxbridge - the union of two of the most prestigious and oldest universities in England. The first college in Cambridge opened in 1284. The most famous building in Cambridge - the Cathedral of the Royal College. It was built almost a hundred years - since 1446, and became the greatest architectural structures. The choir boys of the cathedral of the Royal College every year, traditionally broadcast on television on Christmas Day. Pope John (John) XXII officially recognized University in 1318, but by the time it was already well established educational institution. Education in Cambridge, took many years, and after graduation was required for at least another 2 years to spend it as a teacher. Victorian reforms have contributed to that in 1869 opened Girton - the first women's college. University of Cambridge consists of a central department of the college, and 31 - 28 joint training and 3 women, in Cambridge, more than 100 departments, faculties and schools, which coordinates the General Board. Administrative body is the Board of Cambridge. Today, there are trained 18,000 students, 17% of them - foreigners. In order to be able to study at Cambridge, to be interviewed by the selection committee and provide a certificate of proficiency in English (GCSE-C; IELTS 6-7; TOEFL 600/250). Cost of training varies from 9 thousand. Pounds for theoretical courses and 22 thousand - for a course in clinical practice. Additionally, students pay a fee for financial support to college - from 3 to 4 thousand pounds, the exact amount depends on the particular college. Living expenses will not exceed 7,000. There is an opportunity to receive a grant from the university, but their quantity is limited. Rector of Cambridge - Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Vice-Rector - Professor Alison Richard. Research specialties: chemical engineering, computer science; engineering; industrial engineering; mathematics medicine science, veterinary medicine. Humanities specialty: the Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic culture of Archaeology and Anthropology, Architecture, antique classics, economics, education, English, geography, history, art history, land management, law, linguistics, management, modern and medieval languages, music; Eastern culture, philosophy, social and political sciences, religion and theology. More than half of the students prefer to study in humanities. Cambridge scientists have received 82 Nobel prizes since 1904 - 29 in physics, 23 in Medicine, 19 - in chemistry, 7 - the economy, and 2 - in the category of literature and for peace.
1. History of the University
According to historians, the earliest written mention of this city belongs to the 730. But it is possible that it existed before. Initially, in the so-called Castle Hill, is now located near the city center, there was a small Roman settlement. In all likelihood, it was called Durolipons. The settlement that was pretty important trading port, being the main point of navigation on the river Grant (Granta), as well as the most convenient place for her crossing. Celtic name of the river Rea (water) still remained on some maps as "Who or river Rea. Since over time the name of the river has changed, changed and city names. Thus Grantebryge became Chambridge.V VII century on the site of a Roman settlement, a new, named Grantaceastr. The first bridge across the river Grant, by the researchers, was built by the Anglo-Saxon King Offa in the second half of the VIII century. Name another settlement, which was located nearby, just down the river, the story to us is not denounced. It is only known that they were both in the IX century, during the reign of Mercia, were united in a city called Grantebryge (Grantebryge). By this time the city had already been turned into a defensive point. Network of similar fortifications was established Anglo-Saxon King Alfred to protect against the Vikings. In 874 to Grantebrydge approached an army led by the Danish king Godrumom, Ostsiteloy and Envindom which, together with a small number of troops remained in the city for almost a year. A few years later the town de jure came under the control of the Danish kingdom, which lasted 40 years. And after 7 years, he took the oath of allegiance to the English king Edward the Elder. But already in 1010 by the Danes, and never got over the loss of the city, made a second attempt to gain Grantebryge. It was sad for the residents of the city as the invaders burned it almost completely.
New page in the history of the city was opened during the Norman invasion. In 1066, the Battle of Hastings, after the defeat of British troops killed in battle and King Harold II, the Norman Duke William became king of England William I the Conqueror. The Normans, introducing a new administrative board, was appointed first sheriff of the city Pico (sheriff - appointed by the supreme authority of the officer who performs in his custody areas of administrative and police functions). He began by saying that blew about 30 town houses, and built this place your own lock. Up until 1101, when King Henry I granted the town the right to collect the most taxes to the royal treasury, the people constantly fought to get rid of power sheriffs. The fact that they used to, charging the name of the king taxes, increase the fixed amount, taking into account their own needs, but about the law and order were concerned less. Finally of administrative control city sheriff was only released in the XIII century. Presumably at the beginning of the same century, some schools that existed in the city, together, founded a local university. However, similarly shaped and the other "early" universities such as Bologna (1088), Paris (1119) and Oxford (presumably 1190). The fact that schools were generally under the patronage of the church, and teachers, following the lead of other professional associations, should have formed a guild to protect their rights and support each other. So in those days the word "university" means "community". Documents showing the exact date of Education, University of Cambridge, does not exist. But there is evidence that in 1209 he had already acted. Over the years, townspeople and students of the University were engaged in an undeclared war that has emerged on the one hand, because it is too arbitrary conduct of students, on the other - because of the arbitrariness of people, disproportionately inflated prices for food and housing, rented for the University. In 1231 in the confrontation was forced to intervene and King Henry III. King's verdict was that now the prices of housing and food have to watch the two representatives of the University, and two honest citizen. Legally, his decision to remain in force until 1856, although it is not hostile to reconcile. Townspeople still continued to take students outsiders, and they, in turn, divided into "northerners", "southerners", "Scottish", etc., have time to quarrel with both local residents and among themselves. Often these clashes ended in the killing and destruction, causing significant damage to the city, and their protagonists were forced to flee to avoid fair competition Punishment. By the way University with the city occurred at an official level. Power and order, and another spent huge sums of money to compete for their rights and privileges. This standoff lasted for several centuries.
In 1561, during a scheduled match in the game, which later became known as football, between students and townspeople happened next. Judge of the match was appointed chief constable of the city, Thomas Parish. At some point in his signal locals suddenly stopped playing and, armed with a specially hoarded for this truncheons to beat unsuspecting students. After this incident, the relationship rivals for a long time came a lull. In accordance with the act, published in 1825 by the British Vice-Chancellor, University undertook to have its own constables who are responsible for maintaining order. And in 1836 in Cambridge, was created by the police department, whose officers, who had a very noticeable uniforms, became a favorite target restless pupils. Say Cambridge, can not be said of the now traditional rivalry between the local and Oxford universities. It began at the dawn of the XIII century and continues to this day. However, between these two universities to have quite a unique "mutual aid". Confirmation of this may be recorded in the chronicles episode. In 1209 the Oxford student killed a resident of the city. In retaliation for this crime townspeople organized a lynch mob, hanging a few students. For this outrage the Bishop of Canterbury, condemned the city of severe punishment, part of which was a very respectable annual monetary penalty that Oxford ceased to be paid only in 1984. As a result of these developments, some students at Oxford University decided to move away from sin in Cambridge. When such incidents took place in Cambridge, members of urban disturbances often found refuge in Oxford. But official relations between the two universities have always kept the spirit of competition. So, the papal decree, which recognized for the Cambridge University status so-called Studium Generale, means an international recognition and allows him to escape from the spiritual authority of bishops and archbishops, and gave him an opportunity for teachers to perform their duties not only within the University, but wherever they wish, and allow studies at the University of students from other countries. A University of Oxford, founded a little earlier and considered no less an influential institution, such recognition from the Pope is not awarded. Although both he and the other - the only university in the world, and still adhering to a medieval European system, whereby students are trained not on the faculties, as is commonly accepted, and in colleges. And now they compete only in the level of taught courses, learning outcomes and, of course, in the sport. And this rivalry is good for everyone.
Of course, Cambridge - is primarily a university, but do not forget that he is also a city. Its population is 110,400 people. And although most of its attractions are concentrated still in college at the University, the city itself is not deprived of any churches or museums, or notable facilities. Cambridge Museum of Classical Archaeology is famous for one of the world's largest collections of Greek and Roman statues. In an era of Victorian townspeople called it his "archeological laboratory. Collection of the Zoological Museum began to take shape as early as 1814, many of its artifacts were collected and donated to the museum by Charles Darwin. Museum of the History of Science, located in a building built in the early XVII century, contains a unique collection of scientific instruments and models from the Middle Ages to the present day. Fittsvilyam museum is rich in artistic masterpieces of Western European paintings (XII - XX centuries.), Its antique collection, as well as collections of ancient samples of ceramics, glass, coins and medals. Cambridge Churches have long and rich history, since some of them were built here long before both on campus began to appear first chapel. This city is famous so large that at present title of Cambridge are about 30 localities throughout the world.
Thirty-three in one (College, University of Cambridge). Not so easy to understand at a glance that Cambridge - is not only a university but a great city. Even harder to realize that thirty-one college, located in Cambridge and its surroundings - it is the university itself. History of the creation of colleges rather bizarre - sometimes the reason to base the new college was just a whim of those in power, sometimes - a vow or other honor their commitments, sometimes - the imperative of our time, or even "social order" ... The first College Cambridge - Peterhouse - was founded in 1284 by Hugh de Balshamom, Bishop Or. The oldest of the university's buildings badly rebuilt in the XIX century, but still bears the traits of those distant days. He has a fun feature - from the window of one of the student bedrooms are constantly hanging rope. This tradition stems from the fact that the poet Thomas Gray, a former student of this college, so afraid of fire, which is always kept at the ready, this escape route. Current students belong to a quirk with sympathetic humor and contemporaries so mercilessly teased poor guy that he had to flee - to transfer to Pembroke College. Trinity Hall College was founded in 1350 by the Bishop of Norwich Beytmanom specifically to grow within the walls of canon law experts - to replace the seven hundred priests who had died during the Great Plague. College continued to specialize in the jurisdiction, and is still known as "lawyer". College of St.. Catherine opened a couple of him in 1473, when Trinity Hall no longer cope with growing up the flow of students - especially for already ordained priests, who could study there theology, philosophy and ancient languages. In 1441 at age 19, King Henry VI laid the foundation stone of King's College. For its construction was destroyed by a big chunk of the medieval city. College and "town" with its built nearly three hundred years, the game is worth it - here was created by one of the architectural masterpieces of world fame - the Chapel of the Holy Virgin. Sir Christopher Wren, famous architect, saw the vaulted ceiling of the chapel, said that he could create the same - but only if someone told him where to lay the first stone ... Trinity College merged from Miklehouse and Kingsholla at the behest of Henry VIII just six weeks before his death. The royal family of Great Britain is the official patron of the college. At the main gate of his coat of arms placed by Edward III, in a niche above it stands a statue of Henry VIII. With all due deference to the royal family, as a result of student pranks the statue disappeared one day and a scepter in his stead was inserted into a chair leg ... The great Trinity House, built in 1604, are portraits of the most famous teachers and college students - and of its walls came a lot of intellectuals scientists, politicians, writers and poets ... It is in the walls of this institution, Lord Byron "chip" their eccentric jokes with manual bear and a dip in the fountain, Milne wrote, "Children's folly" in the form of fairy tales about beast (later the protagonist of his books have become a teddy bear his son). And the apple tree near the main gate, the college, as is known, is a descendant of that very tree that dropped the apple that inspired Isaac Newton to formulate the law of attraction ... Two of the youngest college spirit born of the changing times. First Women's College was founded in 1873 in the nearby village of Cambridge, Girton. Students were taught there only in the presence of companions older age (usually relatives). Lecturers have been specially come to Girton in Cambridge. In 1875 was opened Nyunam Women's College, students who (also accompanied by a mentor) have visited a total of male students lecture. In 1881, women were allowed to pass the final examinations, but only in 1948 have made the assignment of degrees. Between 1972 and 1988, one after the other colleges became mixed, and women now occupy about a third of student places at Cambridge. The last men-only college at Cambridge was a College of St.. Magdalena. In connection with this event, students and professors, so long persist in our liberated age, the month wore on their sleeves black crape, and the flag of the college was half-mast in half. We have to think, however, that they move not misogyny, but the desire of originality ... Colleges difficult to "rank" - and how they compare on what grounds? According to the glory of graduates? According to legend? According to the treasures of libraries? The architectural monuments? Pembroke has a chapel - the first work of Christopher Wren, later shook the world with their cathedrals. Queens College stores the solar-lunar clock XVII century wooden bridge - a copy of "Mathematical Bridge, built in 1749 without any kind of Railways parts. One of the balls lovely Clare College bridge missing segment - think it's personal signature enraged architect Thomas Grambolda, which paid for the work ... all three shillings! Plaque in the chapel of Sidney Sussex College notes the burial place of the head of his most famous student - Oliver Cromwell. Gonville And Keyes College he is known for three gates symbolizing the academic stage in the life of a student: he enters the Gates of Humility, passes through the Gate of Virtue and goes through the Gate of Honor ... There is no reason to believe one college over another. And it is not so easy to believe that the university itself is not "above" all of them. Indeed, in some sense, a separate University of Cambridge does not exist. University - is thirty-one his college ...
In March this year resulted in 147-e traditional boat races on the rowing eights between teams of universities of Cambridge and Oxford. Won the team Cambridge. First similar race was held in 1829 at the initiative of two friends - Charles Merivela (Cambridge) and Charles Wordsworth (Oxford) and ended with victory for the team at Oxford. In the second match, held in 1836, won the Cambridge. With the 1845 race were held now already on the existing route, and from 1856 became an annual event. The exception were the only years of the First and Second World wars. Boat competitions are held on the River Thames, near London. Distance in 6.778 km team overcome in less than 20 minutes, making thus about 600 strokes with oars. The boats have a length of 19.9 m and a weight of 96 kg. Record time (16 min. 19 sec.) Established a team of Cambridge in 1998. Three times the boat overturned one of the teams (in Cambridge - in the 1859 m and 1978's, Oxford - in 1925), bringing victory to the enemy, and in 1912 it happened with the boats of both teams, resulting in a race has been decided to postpone the next day. Now counts 69 victories Oxford and Cambridge - 77. The only tie was recorded in 1877 year. Already first match was attended by, according to newspaper reports at that time, more than 20 thousand spectators. Now on the banks of the Thames each year has 250 thousand, and another 6 million as spectators watching the races because of the mandatory direct translation. Interesting that 90% of the graduates who participated in the earliest contests, became priests, and 90% of current participants - bankers.
5. Education system
Almost 700 years of teaching at Cambridge University was the privilege of men, and only in the XX century in university women appeared. Now at 28 colleges have a system of mixed education, and in the other three - the knowledge obtained exclusively women. Who enroll in the school must first select a specific college, and only then to declare the discipline which he intends to explore, even if at this college selected by discipline is not currently teach. Pass exams in Cambridge not, but that does not indicate that there is easy to do. This requires several conditions. First: the applicant must have a certificate of completion is an English school, the second - the highest possible number of high points earned in the process of schooling, and - the presence of a letter of recommendation from the class teacher and the third - the need to pass through a series of three 20-minute interviews. Usually, this test overcomes the only one in second. If all documents provided are adequate, and all three interviews designed to find out how the applicant erudite, and what is the level of his education, as well as what his understanding of his chosen profession, completed successfully, the applicant may consider himself a student Cambridge University Press. On the one hand, received - this is a great joy, and with another - a huge responsibility and hard work, because the main principle of Cambridge is a postulate, which asserts that "life can not teach, but you learn." Its meaning is that in Cambridge the walls there is nothing binding, which means that the student must demonstrate the wonders of self-discipline in order to master the art of self-education. And for this the University has created all conditions: a modern laboratory, superbly-equipped library, the best teachers, and of course the system of individual training - more than two students, teacher training is not conducted, as well as lectures, mandatory only for students of engineering at the University of Specialty. Teach lasts 3 - 4 years (except that certain of future physicians and veterinarians who are on the full development of these specialties require at least 7 years). The academic year begins in October and ends in June. At the local student holidays three times a year - at Christmas, Easter and summer. Need to say that not all students maintain a rhythm of life and such loads. Screenings in the learning process (either voluntary or forced, the latter - a phenomenon quite rare), a small, but существует.Экзаменационные session students shall be in writing, without attribution. Such thing as a "ticket" is not here. Upon completion of a university course the student receives a bachelor's degree and his PhD - a doctorate. Degrees from Cambridge University are assigned to 25 spetsialnostyam.Za 100 years of existence of the most prestigious award in the world - Nobel laureates began its 60 graduates of the University. The price level for training is dependent on the nationality of the student. For the citizens of the UK provides for a system of incentives, including grants and bank loans. The average cost of tuition is 13 000 pounds, but foreigners pay in 3 - 4 times. And these amounts very few people stopped by the global prestige of Cambridge is so high that the university authorities could afford such a price policy. At the moment in Cambridge enrolled 15,500 students, 15% of them - foreigners from more than 100 countries. Annual turnover of the University (excluding colleges and publishers University Cambridge Press) is 250 million dollars.
6. What to do in Cambridge
For the first time the most famous UK universities open up the introductory requirements for arriving at the bachelor's program. Cambridge on its web site published a list of the least attractive things in terms of university admissions, thereby forcing both parents and school counselors, to think seriously on the topic of their choice for further study and exams for the course is full of high school.
Let us first consider the general conditions for admission to Cambridge. First of all, the university prefers applicants who have completed the program A-Level and passed the final examinations in four or five subjects studied in depth. The university must provide all the marks obtained in these disciplines, but pay attention mainly to those on which they intend to further study at Cambridge. It is desirable that candidates had very high marks - "A".
For example, from coming to Cambridge entrants in 2005 70% had the highest score in A-Level - 360 points, 120 points for each of the three-handed in the school final examinations. 95% of them gained places at university.
Permitted the replacement of one of the exams document establishing that the candidate has received from some of the administrative confirmation of their excellent knowledge of a subject (Advanced Extention Award - AEA). This would mean that the applicant is not simply handed the subject of increased level of complexity, but also that he spent extra effort to study it and to test their knowledge through an independent organization.
Therefore, the selection committee, with equal attention to treat the applicant, granted, instead of three "A" for A-Level Two "A", one "B" and evidence of AEA. Some colleges that are part of Cambridge even give preference to candidates with the AEA.
Those who decided to come to Cambridge for mathematics, it is necessary in addition to examinations in A-Level pass an additional test called "Test papers in mathematics for sixth form" (Sixth Term Examination Papers in Mathematics - STEP). The University believes that the estimates obtained for STEP, a candidate can describe better than exams A-Level. STEP rent only to those who focused on the study of mathematics in the leading universities in the country. In 2005, for example, STEP were 1.350 candidates.
However, each specialty, taught at the university has specific requirements. They can be found on the website of the university.
Applicants who have received secondary education in Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the successful candidates (Scottish Advanced Highers, Welsh Advanced Diploma in the Welsh Baccalaureate or the Irish Leaving Certificate), can compete for a place at the university in general practice.
Good chances to become a freshman at Cambridge University, are graduates of schools that teach the International Baccalaureate Program (International Baccalaureate - IB). On average, they need to score from 38 to 42 points out of 45 possible. Task is made easier by the fact that in the course of IB include a compulsory section called "creativity, action, service" (Creativity, Action, Service - CAS). Consider in detail the components of this extremely important part of the educational activities of schools IB.
"Creativity" - development of creative skills, such as participation in school musical productions, theatrical performances, production of the school newspaper or the school site, etc.
"Action" - participation in school and regional sporting events, classes group or individual sports.
"Serving" - work for the benefit of society, such as volunteer fire brigade, Red Cross chapter, social services, active participation in school government, in training guide dogs, etc. (the list of activities offered each school ).
Why is this part of the IB program is so important when you receive not only Cambridge but also in other famous universities in the world? The fact that Western society wants its citizens not only highly educated, but also able to assist its development, it is not possible without the active participation in public life. Therefore, graduates of foreign schools who intend to storm the tops of higher education may, at its end take a year to work as a volunteer in various charitable organizations. This will add the scores for admission to elite universities in the world.
Go to Cambridge are the chances of graduates of foreign schools that received a national diploma with good grades, for example, the French Baccalaureate (Baccalaureate), German entrants (Abitur), Italian maturita (Maturita). To applicants from the former Soviet Union, which still preserve the Soviet system of eleven secondary education, this does not apply. They lack the years of study, which can make up to one-year preparatory program Foundation. However, by its end chances for admission to Cambridge is extremely small.
In addition to excellent ratings in the certificate of foreigners must provide proof of English proficiency at a very high level (IELTS not less than 7,0, preferably 7,5). All those applicants need to submit recommendations from their schools and so-called "letter of intent, which must be motivated to explain what made them do it in Cambridge. May be asked to write another one or two additional essays on a particular topic.
But that's not all. Once the applicant passes all the stages of initial screening, he was invited for an interview. Questions asked during the interview can be provocative. For example, future physicians ask: "If before you had a choice - to kill a healthy person to transplant his organs to the other two, the terminally ill, or leave these two to die, what would you choose?"
Although the university because of financial circumstances is extremely interested in the Aliens coffers of its budget (for example, the number of foreign students accepted the university in 2005 for the first year amounted to 16,7%, and in 2004 - 13,4%), it does not mitigate the entry requirements. The competition is tough. Each year about 14 thousand candidates are fighting for one of 3.400 places at Cambridge. Therefore, those who graduated from vocational colleges and received certificates and diplomas (VCE, Applied A-Level, GNVQ, BTEC), go to the University of Cambridge will be difficult. It runs the installation, which adjust to study at leading universities (ie, to forge a career) should be started as soon as possible.
Returning to the unwanted items, quoting information from the site of Cambridge: "Applicants must submit results from the two traditional academic subjects (including two items not included in this list). For example, a variant of "mathematics, history and business" may be suitable for a certain number of our subjects. At the same time a combination of "history, business and media" usually cannot be regarded as acceptable, since it contains only one item not mentioned in the reducible list. Similarly, for applicants who have completed the program of the International Baccalaureate (IB), the diploma must be submitted no more than one of the above listed disciplines. "
Also, if the student how to not to choose their future profession, the selection committee recommends that, as subjects for the exams for the course is to choose A-level set of disciplines, wherever included: chemistry, English literature, history, mathematics, one of the modern languages as well as physics.
It should also be noted that while not entirely satisfied with the quality of final examinations in A-Level, in 2008, the International Examinations Board, University of Cambridge (CIE) is going to introduce a new exam, called Pre-U. The purpose of Pre-U - identify the most talented children are able to study in prestigious universities in the UK. The new test system was developed in conjunction with renowned British boarding schools and universities that make up the "Russell Group". To pass the Pre-U, students may require in-depth study three subjects over the past two years in school, pass exams on them and write an extended essay on a given topic. New tests do not replace the old system of A-Levels, and students can take a Pre-U, and A-Levels, however, for admission to universities the First Division will give preference to those who pass the new test. In parallel with the Cambridge London School of Economics posted a set of objects, more or less preferred for the selection committee of the University. "Mathematics, French and economics look better than" mathematics, French and business. " But a combination of "mathematics, accounting and Media examiners would react negatively. The best views will have the results of final examinations for the course A-Level in two academic subjects and only one subject from the list, which includes: accounting, art and design, business, communication, dance, design and technology, drama / theater studies, home economics, information technology communications, law, media and sport.
2006 The Cambridge Museum there was a curious case. Hapless visitor had not noticed that he had untied shoelaces and fell on the ancient Chinese vases era of the Qin Dynasty. They are more than forty years stood on a windowsill Fitzwilliam Museum, and were among the most popular exhibits. Museum director Duncan Robinson, commenting on the incident, said it was his nightmare became a reality.
Since 2006, Cambridge introduces changes in its course of Slavic languages. Previously, the department taught only Russian and Polish languages and literatures, and now this list will also include the Ukrainian language.
2007 Applicants with a low score on the high school graduation (aka known as A-level), will be able to demonstrate their abilities and go to Cambridge. This prestigious university until 2006, took no results, but different, but from next year on admission, students will take a new logical examination. He is a 90-minute test, developed by scientists at Cambridge, called Thinking Skills Assessment.
2007 Cambridge forced to seek alternative sources of funding due to the fact that the UK government is reducing its maintenance costs of students. Over the past 15 years funding has declined by 40%. The budget deficit of the whole university is 15.1 million. Pounds sterling - is on average 1,290 pounds per student.
Vice Cancer University Alison Richard said that they plan to attract financing in the amount of 1 billion. Pounds 2012. Investors may make graduates of Cambridge, and other individuals and companies.
2006 Members of the selection committees of the two most famous English universities - Oxford and Cambridge - characterized by good sense of humor. When accepting the university, they take into account not only the level of student knowledge, but his quickness, reaction to unusual questions. For example, one future student of the Faculty of Medicine suggested that logically prove that at the moment members of the selection committee watching how he dances. These questions are aimed at revealing the applicant's ability to think imaginatively and logically argue your answers.
2007 British scientists have laid down their arms at Cambridge from a variety of phosphorescent molecules of DNA, no thicker than a human hair. They managed to do it using a special technique that allows to work with tiny particles of living matter without harming it. Unique in size tool - micropipette, according to David Klenerman of Cambridge, permitting rapid, "the documentary filming of" work cells in the human body. Previously, there were ways to create high-precision images, but they all require the destruction of cells, and the researchers have not been able to see it at work. The accuracy of the image - the order of 10 nanometers.
In addition, the use of micropipettes to the study of small objects, such as ion channels in membranes, when transferring to other surface molecules, which is often used in microbiological research.