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НАУЧНАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА - РЕФЕРАТЫ - Английский язык профессионального общения (вариант "А")

Английский язык профессионального общения (вариант "А")



Министерство образования и науки Украины

Донецкий институт управления

Кафедра социально-гуманитарных дисциплин

Контрольная работа

по курсу

Английский язык профессионального общения (вариант «А»)


студент I курса

Родченко А.В.

Донецк 2008

Approved by the Department of SS&H, March 27 , 2007.

Head of the Department O.Orlova


Name: Alex Rodchenko

Date: April 24, 2008

A. GRAMMAR: ( 30 points )

1. Complete the text using the verbs in columns: ( 12 points )

1. has 3. are exempt 5. becomes 7. does not pay 9. is 11. are applied

2. may obtain 4. will pay 6. can be obtained 8. is enforced 10. directs 12. is exempt

Ordinarily, when a civil judgment for the plaintiff (1) 5. becomes final, the defendant (2) 4. will pay the amount or perform any other requirements of the judgment. If the defendant (3) 7. does not pay, the plaintiff (4) 2. may obtain a writ (court order) of execution. Execution (5) 9. is the process by which a judgment for money (6) 8. is enforced. The court (7) 10. directs the sheriff, or other officer, to seize and sell specific property of the defendant identified by the plaintiff. The proceeds, after deduction of the costs of seizure and sale, (8) 11. are applied to the payment of the judgment. Certain items, such as essential clothes, household goods, and tools of trade (9) 3. are exempt from execution. If the defendant (10) 1. has no property over the amount that (11) 9. is exempt, nothing (12) 6. can be obtained by execution.

Choose the proper option for each sentence below: ( 5 points )

Look at those clouds! It must rain soon.

1) may 2) should 3) must 4) can

Some people should learn how to express their feelings in a civilized way.

1) would 2) should 3) must 4) ought

I think she must speak to the boss now. It is very important!

1) should 2) may 3) must 4) can

Would you change this ?200 banknote for me?

1) ought 2) may 3) must 4) would

Ought I to give you some advice?

1) ought 2) may 3) must 4) can

3. Put questions using the given Q-words: ( 3 points )

If there is an error in the record, the reviewing court will not affirm the judgment of the lower court.

Why will the reviewing court not affirm the judgment of the lower court?

After the verdict of a jury has been returned, the judge pronounces a judgment.

When does the judge pronounce a judgment?

For conviction of a crime, a unanimous verdict of guilty is usually required.

What is usually required for conviction of a crime?

4. Transform these sentences into passive structures: ( 6 points)

They invite a witness to the court by means of a subpoena.

The witness is invited to the court by means of subpoena.

After consultation with the attorneys, the judge instructed the jury.

The jury was instructed by the judge after consultation with the attorneys.

In a trial, a jury determines issues of fact.

In a trial, issues of fact are determined by a jury.

5. Combine the sentences into one using that, which or who: ( 4 points )

a) The room was crowded with the people. They came there on invitation.

The room was crowded with the people who (that) came there on invitation.

b) The street is lined with poplars. It has several new cottages.

The street which (that) has several new cottages is lined with poplars.

B. VOCABULARY: (24 points)

1. Give definitions in Ukrainian/ Russian of the underlined words: (8 points)

A trial jury is a group of independent citizens selected to determine questions of fact.

A trial jury = суд присяжных

The evidence is then presented to the jury first by the plaintiff and then by the defendant.

The evidence =, улики, вещественные доказательства

Testimony consists of statements made by witnesses in court.

Testimony = показания свидетелей

A witness is someone who was present during the incident and hs personal knowledge of the facts.

A witness = свидетель

The verdict is the decision of the jury.

The verdict = вердикт

In a criminal case, the verdict will be either for the prosecution or for the defendant.

The prosecution = обвинение, сторона обвинения

The judgment is the final result of the trial.

The judgment = приговор

Execution is the process by which a judgment for money is enforced.

Execution = приведение в исполнение

2. Match the notions and the definitions: (16 points)

a) complaint 1) one who brings a civil action

b) answer 2) conference of the judge with the opposing attorneys before the trial

c) default judgment 3) court-ordered means of getting facts about the dispute from the opposing party and witnesses before the trial

d) deposition 4) judgment given (without a trial) to the plaintiff when the defendant fails to answer the complaint

e) discovery procedures 5) pretrial questioning of the opposing party and witnesses under oath

Plaintiff 6) defendant's statement in reply to the plaintiff's complaint

pretrial hearing 7) court order directing the defendant to answer the plaintiff's complaint

summons 8) first paper in a civil action, filed by the plaintiff, stating the claim for judgment.

a) 8

b) 6

c) 4

d) 5

e) 3

f) 1

g) 2

h) 7


Read the text, write you translation and answer the questions given below the text: (20 points)

When one person is liable for the torts of another, the liability is called vicarious liability. The most common example of this is the liability of an employer for the acts of employees committed within the scope of the employment. To prevent such liability, the employer should select, train, and supervise employees carefully. The employer should also carry adequate liability insurance. Employer's responsibility does not relieve the employee of liability. The injured party may sue both the employer and the employee. Although the plaintiff may then get a judgment against both, he or she can collect only one full recovery. Usually it is the employer, or the employer's insurance company, who pays.

Damages are awarded to the injured party to compensate for the loss caused by tort. The purpose of the award is to place the injured party in the same position as if the tort had not occurred. In many cases, the loss may be difficult to measure. An example would be where negligence causes bodily injury with continuing pain and suffering or even death. However, the dollar value of the injury or loss must be set. The value is usually decided by a jury.

The jury might award additional punitive or exemplary damages. These damages would be awarded as punishment for intentional tort and as an example to deter others. Punitive damages are never awarded for ordinary negligence.

Когда один человек несет ответственность за гражданские правонарушения другого, такая ответственность называется ответственностью за правонарушения других лиц. Самым распространенным примером такой ответственности является ответственность работодателя за правонарушения своих работников, которые были совершены на рабочем месте. Для того чтобы предотвратить такую ответственность, работодатель должен тщательно отбирать, обучать и осуществлять контроль над своими работниками. Работодатель также должен проводить страхование ответственности. Ответственность работодателя не уменьшает ответственность работника. Пострадавшая сторона может подать иск как против работодателя, так и против работника. Хотя истец может выиграть дело в обоих случаях, получить полное возмещение убытков он может только с одной стороны. Обычно платит работодатель или страховая компания работодателя.

Пострадавшей стороне возмещаются убытки для компенсации потерь, которые она понесла при совершении правонарушения. Целью возмещения является возврат пострадавшей стороны в то состояние, в каком бы она была, если бы правонарушение не совершалось. Во многих случаях очень трудно определить убытки. Таким примером могут служить тяжелые телесные повреждения или даже смерть, ставшие результатом халатности. Тем не менее, должен быть установлен денежный размер повреждения или ущерба. Этот размер обычно устанавливается присяжными.

Присяжные могут назначить дополнительно штрафную или типовую компенсацию. Такое возмещение убытков налагается как наказание за преднамеренное гражданское правонарушение и служит примером для предотвращения других подобных правонарушений. Штрафные компенсации никогда не назначаются за обычную халатность.

Аnswer the questions: (10 points)

What is vicarious liability?

Vicarious liability is the liability when one person is liable for the torts of another.

What can be the most common example of vicarious liability?

The most common example of vicarious liability can be the liability of an employer for the acts of employees committed within the scope of the employment.

How can the employer prevent such a liability?

To prevent such liability, the employer should select, train, and supervise employees carefully; he should also carry adequate liability insurance.

Whom may the injured party sue in this situation?

In the situation of vicarious liability, the injured party may sue both the employer and the employee.

What are damages awarded to the injured party for?

Damages are awarded to the injured party to compensate for the loss caused by tort.

D. TRANSLATION: (16 points)

Write the translation of the following sentences into English:

1) Недбалість є одним з найпоширеніших видів гражданського правопорушення.

Negligence is the most common tort.

2) Людина має право бути вільною від брехливих спостережень щодо її характеру або поведінки.

A person has the right to be free from false reports about his character or conduct.

3) Незаконним втручанням у власне життя людини є звичайне підслуховування або підслуховування за допомогою електронних пристроїв.

Ordinary eavesdropping by listening or electronic devices can be invasion of privacy.

4) Таємна змова між двома здійснити незаконний кримінальний вчинок або законний вчинок через незаконні шляхи карається у судовому порядку.

Conspiracy between two persons to do an unlawful criminal act or to do a lawful act by unlawful means is punished judicially.

© РЕФЕРАТЫ, 2012